C1 What do you call a small stream of water not big enough to be a river?

C2 After a heavy rain or a quick thaw, when you see the water in a stream getting higher, you say it’s ________. [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C3 A place in a swift stream where the surface of the water is broken: [Early QRs: What do you call a shallow place in a swift stream where the surface of the water is broken?]

C4a What do you call a fairly large body of fresh water? (Give the names of some around here.)

C4b Is there any difference in the size of a lake and a pond? In the use? For example, would people go fishing or swimming in a pond?

C5 What are the names of some of the lakes and ponds around here? [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C6 What do you call a piece of land that’s often wet, and has grass and weeds growing on it?

C7 What do you call land that usually has some standing water with trees or bushes growing in it?

C8 What do you call a place in a stream where water flows round and round and draws things in toward the center?

C9 Water from a river that comes up and covers low land when the river is high:

C10 When a river is dammed and the water backs up and spreads out above a dam, you call that: [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C11 Soft, wet sand in streams or wet places, that draws people and things down into it:

C12 A section of a river where the banks are much farther apart, and the water widens out for some distance: [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C13 A piece of land that sticks out noticeably into a body of water:

C14 A stretch of still water going off to the side from a river or lake:

C15 A place in mountains or high hills where you can get through without climbing over the top:

C16 When a mass of earth and rock comes loose from a high place and rushes down, you call it a ________.

C17 Around here, what do you call a small, rounded hill? (Get dimensions!)

C18 What do you call a mass of rock that stands up high above the level of the land around it? [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C19 What do you call low land running between hills? (With and without water) (Get local names and specific differences of those mentioned.) [Early QRs: What do you call low land running between hills—if it’s fairly small or narrow? (With and without water)]

C20 What if it’s broader or larger? [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C21 A deep place cut in sloping ground by running water:

C22 A piece of stone too big for one person to move easily:

C23 A piece of stone that one person could lift but is too big to throw: [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C24a A small piece of stone that you could easily throw:

C24b “The dog wouldn’t go away, so he took a stone/rock and (Make gesture) ________ (it at it.)” (Get past tense.)

C25 Other kinds of stone around here: about so big (Show size of a person’s head), smooth and hard—what do you call these?

C26 What special kinds of stone or rock are there in this part of the state? (Open question)

C27 A hillside or deep hole where stone is taken out: [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C28 A place where underbrush, weeds, vines and small trees grow together so that it’s nearly impossible to get through:

C29 A good-sized stretch of level land with practically no trees:

C30 What do you call loose, dark soil?

C31 What do you call heavy, sticky soil?

C32 When soil breaks up easily in your fingers, it’s ________. [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

C33 What joking names do you have for an out-of-the-way place, or a very unimportant place?

C34 Nicknames for nearby settlements, villages, or districts: (Open question)

C35 Nicknames for the different parts of your town or city: (Open question)

C36 Nicknames for special communities or groups of people living around here: (Open question) [Asked in early Questionnaires only]

DARE Data Summary by Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.