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The DARE Questionnaire, 1965–1970

The full text of the DARE questionnaire is printed below. The questions are divided into 41 categories, each with a heading broadly describing the general topics covered in that section. Fieldworkers were instructed to ask each question as it is written here, so that the responses would be comparable. (Parenthetic instructions to the Fieldworkers, however, were not read aloud.)

Some changes were made after the first 75 Questionnaires had been completed. (The Informants who responded to this early version of the Questionnaire are identified in the Informant List in Volume I of DARE.) In the later Questionnaires, the questions of section OO (“Verb Forms”) were dispersed so that they would be asked in appropriate places among the other questions, thus avoiding the impression of a grammar test. In the following list they are retained in alphanumeric order. Some 200 questions that proved to be relatively unproductive were removed; these questions are identified below with a minus sign (-) in the left-hand column (and in the DARE entries with the phrase “total Infs questioned, 75” after the question text). A few questions were added; these questions are identified with a plus sign (+) in the left-hand column (and in DARE entries with the phrase “not asked in early QRs”). A few other questions were rephrased. The list below does not give a detailed collation of the two versions, but in cases where the differences could be significant, the questions are marked with an asterisk (*) in the left-hand column, and the early questionnaire version is given in square brackets.

    Time
    A1 What do you call the time in the early morning before the sun comes into sight?
    A2 The time when the sun first comes into sight, that’s ________.
    A3 The time between the middle of the day and supper time:
    A4 The time of day when the sun goes out of sight
    A5 The time right after the sun goes out of sight, before it becomes all dark:
    A6 What time is this? (Show picture of clock face at 10:45.)
    A7 And what time is this? (Show picture of clock face at 10:30.)
    -A8 What joking names do you have for an alarm clock?
    A9 What do you call wasting time by not working on the job?
    A10 And doing little unimportant things: Somebody asks, “What are you doing?” and you answer, “Nothing in particular—I’m just ________.”
    A11 When somebody takes too long about coming to a decision, you might say, “I wish he’d quit ________.”
    A12 When somebody keeps you waiting, you might say, “Hurry up! I don’t have all day to ________ you!”
    A13 When something needs to be done immediately, you might say, “I’ll do it ________!”
    A14 Referring to a very short period of time: “I’ll be ready in ________.” or “It won’t take any longer than ________.”
    A15 Something that happens only occasionally: “He comes around ________.”
    A16 A very long period of time: “I haven’t seen him ________.”
    A17 If it was 1960 and you were speaking of something that happened in 1950, you might say, “That was ten ________.”
    A18 Words or expressions used around here about a very slow person: “What’s keeping him? He certainly is ________!”
    A19 Other ways of saying “I’ll have to hurry”: “I’m late, I’ll have to ________.”
    A20 Joking ways of telling somebody to hurry: You might say, “________!”
    *A21 When someone is in too much of a hurry you might say, “Now just slow down! Don’t ________.” [Early QRs: When someone is in too much of a hurry, or wants to do something before the right time, you might say, “Calm down! Don’t ________.”]
    A22 Other ways of saying ‘to start working hard’: “She had only ten minutes to clean the room, but she ________ (and had it done in time).”
    A23 To do something at the very first try: “He got the right answer ________.”
    A24 Speaking of someone who has always been the same way: “He’s been hot-tempered from ________.”
    -A25 When something goes on for a very long time: “That sermon yesterday was certainly ________.”
    A26 Talking about the past: “People used to walk a lot, but everybody drives a car ________.”
    Weather
    B1 If a day is very pleasant, you say it’s a ________ day.
    B2 If the weather is very unpleasant, you say it’s a ________ day.
    B3 If a day is very hot, you say it’s (a) ________.
    B4 A day when the air is very still, moist, and warm—it’s ________.
    B5 When the weather looks as if it will become bad, you say it’s ________.
    B6 When clouds begin to increase, you say it’s ________.
    B7 When clouds begin to decrease, you say it’s ________.
    B8 When clouds come and go all day, you say it’s ________.
    B9 What do you call the big clouds that roll up high before a rainstorm?
    B10 What do you call the long trailing clouds high in the sky?
    B11 Are there any other kinds of clouds that come often around here? (Open question—answers not necessarily comparable. Get descriptions.)
    B12 When the wind begins to increase, you say it’s ________.
    B13 When the wind begins to decrease, you say it’s ________.
    B14 When the wind is blowing unevenly, sometimes strong and sometimes weak, you say it’s ________.
    B15 When the wind suddenly begins to blow in a different direction, you say it ________.
    B16 A destructive wind that comes with a funnel-shaped cloud:
    B17 A destructive wind that blows straight:
    B18 Are there any special kinds of wind that you get around here? (Open question)
    B19 When fog begins to go up into the air, you say it’s ________.
    -B20 If fog goes up very fast: “It’s ________.”
    B21 When fine drops of moisture are falling, you say it’s doing what?
    B22 Rain accompanied by thunder and lightning—you call that a ________.
    B23 Speaking of a light rain that doesn’t last, you would say it’s just a ________.
    B24 What do you call a sudden, very heavy rain?
    *B25 Any joking names around here for a very heavy rain? You might say, “It’s a regular ________.” [Early QRs: What if it keeps on falling heavily? You might say, “It’s a regular ________.”]
    B26 When it’s raining very heavily, you say, “It’s raining ________.”
    B27 A sudden rush of water coming from heavy rain:
    B28 When there is no rain for a long time, that’s a ________.
    B29 A frost that does not kill plants is a ________.
    B30 A frost that kills plants is a ________.
    -B31 A period of cold weather that comes early in the fall, after the first frost:
    B32 A period of warm weather late in the fall:
    B33a The first thin ice that forms over the surface of a pond or pool: “There’s just a ________ of ice.”
    B33b Talking about the first thin ice that forms over the surface of a pond or pool: “The pond is just ________ over.”
    B34 When a pond or lake becomes entirely covered with ice, you say it is ________.
    B35 Ice that will bend when you step on it, but not break:
    B36 Patterns formed by ice inside a window glass in winter:
    -B37 Long pointed pieces of ice that hang down from the roof:
    -B38 When rain falls half-frozen you say, “It’s ________.”
    B39 A very light fall of snow:
    -B40 A severe snowstorm:
    -B41 When there’s a wet mixture of snow and water on the ground in spring, you say, “It’s ________ weather.”
    Topography
    C1 What do you call a small stream of water not big enough to be a river?
    -C2 After a heavy rain or a quick thaw, when you see the water in a stream getting higher, you say it’s ________.
    *C3 A place in a swift stream where the surface of the water is broken: [Early QRs: What do you call a shallow place in a swift stream where the surface of the water is broken?]
    C4a What do you call a fairly large body of fresh water? (Give the names of some around here.)
    C4b Is there any difference in the size of a lake and a pond? In the use? For example, would people go fishing or swimming in a pond?
    -C5 What are the names of some of the lakes and ponds around here?
    C6 What do you call a piece of land that’s often wet, and has grass and weeds growing on it?
    C7 What do you call land that usually has some standing water with trees or bushes growing in it?
    C8 What do you call a place in a stream where water flows round and round and draws things in toward the center?
    C9 Water from a river that comes up and covers low land when the river is high:
    -C10 When a river is dammed and the water backs up and spreads out above a dam, you call that:
    C11 Soft, wet sand in streams or wet places, that draws people and things down into it:
    -C12 A section of a river where the banks are much farther apart, and the water widens out for some distance:
    C13 A piece of land that sticks out noticeably into a body of water:
    C14 A stretch of still water going off to the side from a river or lake:
    C15 A place in mountains or high hills where you can get through without climbing over the top:
    C16 When a mass of earth and rock comes loose from a high place and rushes down, you call it a ________.
    C17 Around here, what do you call a small, rounded hill? (Get dimensions!)
    -C18 What do you call a mass of rock that stands up high above the level of the land around it?
    *C19 What do you call low land running between hills? (With and without water) (Get local names and specific differences of those mentioned.) [Early QRs: What do you call low land running between hills—if it’s fairly small or narrow? (With and without water)]
    -C20 What if it’s broader or larger?
    C21 A deep place cut in sloping ground by running water:
    C22 A piece of stone too big for one person to move easily:
    -C23 A piece of stone that one person could lift but is too big to throw:
    C24a A small piece of stone that you could easily throw:
    C24b “The dog wouldn’t go away, so he took a stone/rock and (Make gesture) ________ (it at it.)” (Get past tense.)
    C25 Other kinds of stone around here: about so big (Show size of a person’s head), smooth and hard—what do you call these?
    C26 What special kinds of stone or rock are there in this part of the state? (Open question)
    -C27 A hillside or deep hole where stone is taken out:
    C28 A place where underbrush, weeds, vines and small trees grow together so that it’s nearly impossible to get through:
    C29 A good-sized stretch of level land with practically no trees:
    C30 What do you call loose, dark soil?
    C31 What do you call heavy, sticky soil?
    -C32 When soil breaks up easily in your fingers, it’s ________.
    C33 What joking names do you have for an out-of-the-way place, or a very unimportant place?
    C34 Nicknames for nearby settlements, villages, or districts: (Open question)
    C35 Nicknames for the different parts of your town or city: (Open question)
    -C36 Nicknames for special communities or groups of people living around here: (Open question)
    Houses
    -D1 What do you call the upper part of a two-story house?
    -D2 A sleeping room in a house:
    -D3 A room for visitors to sleep in:
    D4 The space up under the roof, usually used for storing things:
    -D5 When you go from one floor of a house to the floor above: “I’m going ________.”
    D6 To get to the second floor, you walk up the ________.
    D7 A small space anywhere in a house where you can hide things or get them out of the way:
    D8 The small room next to the kitchen (in older houses) where dishes and sometimes foods are kept:
    D9 To prevent bread and cake from drying, you put them in a ________. (See article
    —make sure what it is.)
    D10a The place to keep food cool, usually with ice, so that it won’t spoil:
    D10b The place to keep food cool if it is run by electricity or gas:
    D11 When you go into a house, the part just beyond the front door is the ________.
    D12 The part that’s put on in winter around an outside door to give extra protection from the cold:
    D13 The room where you entertain company:
    -D14 The room where members of the family spend most of their time together when they are at home:
    -D15a Other rooms in your house besides the living room (or other word):
    -D15b Other rooms (not already mentioned) in other people’s houses:
    D16 Names used around here for parts added on to the main part of a house: (Open question)
    D17 What do you call the platform, sometimes with a roof, that’s built on the front or the side of a house? (Differences?)
    D18 The part of the house below the ground floor:
    D19 Referring to the part of the house below the ground floor, you might say, “I’m going ________.” (Gesture downward.)
    D20 Names for a sloping outside cellar door:
    D21 A small, poorly-built house, or one in rundown condition:
    D22 Underground place to go to in case of a violent windstorm:
    D23 A house that is divided in two through the middle so that two families can live in it:
    D24 Living quarters in a building where several other families live:
    -D25 Nicknames for buildings where several families live:
    D26 What names do you have for different kinds of apartments? (Especially, small apartments)
    D27 Strips of wood used to cover the outside of a frame house:
    D28 What hangs below the edge of the roof to carry off rain-water?
    D29 The pipe that takes the collected rain-water down to the ground or to a storage tank:
    D30 The strip of wood or metal that covers the ridge of a roof:
    D31 In front of a fireplace there’s usually stonework on the floor—what do you call this?
    D32 The metal stands in a fireplace that the logs are laid on:
    D33 When you build a fire in the fireplace, what do you call the big log that goes behind the others?
    D34 What do you call the small pieces of wood and other stuff that are used to start a fire?
    -D35 After a large wood fire has burned out, you have to take away a lot of ________.
    D36 What do you call the shelf over the fireplace?
    D37 The strip of wood about eight inches high along the bottom of the wall (inside a room) joining to the floor: (Point at it.)
    -D38 The strip of wood along the bottom of the wall (inside a room)—if it is quite a bit higher than eight inches:
    D39 What nicknames do people have around here for a small eating place where the food is not especially good?
    D40 Names and nicknames around here for the upper balcony in a theater:
    Furniture
    *E1 A piece of furniture that stands against the wall, and you hang clothes in/on it: [The intended text “in it” was inadvertently printed as “on it” in later QRs; this was mostly corrected by hand, but some FWs evidently followed the printed text or read both forms.]
    E2 A built-in space in a room for hanging clothes:
    E3 A piece of furniture in which you lay clothes flat:
    E4 Section in a piece of furniture that you pull in and out: (Point to one.)
    E5 A piece of furniture with a flat top for keeping tablecloths, dishes, and such:
    E6 A small shelf hanging on the wall with small decorative articles on it:
    E7 The piece of upholstered furniture that you can stretch out on to rest:
    -E8 A piece of upholstered furniture that holds two people:
    E9 A piece of upholstered furniture that seats three people: (Differences?)
    E10 Knitted or crocheted pieces placed on the back and arms of a chair for decoration and cleanliness:
    -E11 Pieces of cloth that hang alongside a window to dress it up:
    E12 Pieces of stiff material that you pull down on the inside of a window to keep the sun out: (Gesture or point to them.)
    E13 Words meaning to pull the shades (or other word) down: “When the sun is too bright, you go to the window and ________.” (Gesture.)
    E14 Wooden slats built into a window frame that shut out the sun but let in light and air: (Only in Deep South)
    E15 The cloth that is put on top of a bed, mostly for decoration:
    E16 A padded covering used on a bed, mostly for warmth:
    E17 The removable cover for a bed pillow:
    E18 A temporary or emergency bed made up on the floor:
    -E19 What do you call a bed that is made up wrong as a joke?
    E20 Soft rolls of dust that collect on the floor under beds or other furniture:
    E21 Talking about a room that needs to be put in order, you might say, “I’m just going to ________ this room.”
    E22 If a house is untidy and everything is upset, you might say, “It’s a ________!” or “It looks like ________.”
    Utensils
    F1 What do you call a heavy metal pan that’s used to fry foods?
    -F2 What do you call the light metal pan for frying?
    F3 When you’re frying things—for example, eggs—you turn them over with a ________.
    F4 What do you call the deep metal container used to boil foods?
    -F5 What is used around here to stir a large pot, to prevent lumping or sticking?
    F6 The kitchen utensil with holes punched through the sides and bottom, to drain off liquid from foods:
    F7 The kitchen utensil with wire mesh, used to separate the fine part of food from the coarse:
    F8 The kitchen utensil that you pass flour through:
    F9 To get a liquid through a narrow opening—for example, the neck of a bottle—you’d pour it through a ________.
    F10 If you are familiar with wood-burning stoves—what do you call the round flat pieces that you take out to put in the wood?
    F11 The thing you use to remove the lids (or other word) from a wood-burning stove when it is hot:
    F12 The flat metal piece below a wood-burning stove, to catch the ashes:
    -F13 Talking about different kinds of containers—a small wooden container that nails come in:
    -F14 A large wooden container for vinegar or cider:
    F15 What you turn to let the vinegar or cider run out of a barrel:
    -F16 The container apples come in:
    F17 What peaches come in—different kinds:
    -F18 The container grapes come in:
    F19 A cloth container for grain:
    F20 A cloth container for feed:
    F21 A cloth or paper container that you buy flour in:
    F22a A smaller paper container for bringing groceries home from the store:
    F22b A smaller paper container for carrying a lunch: “He had his lunch in a ________.”
    F23 A container made of rough, loosely-woven, brown cloth; commonly used for potatoes, etc:
    F24 The container for kitchen parings and scraps—inside the kitchen:
    F25 The container for kitchen parings and scraps—out of doors:
    -F26 The place where dishes are washed:
    F27a What you turn on and off inside the house to get running water:
    F27b What you turn on and off outside the house to get running water:
    F28 The utensil with a small cup on a long handle, used to take water or milk out of a pail:
    F29 Different kinds of irons—not electric—used around here for smoothing clothes after they’re washed: (Differences?)
    F30 What is a pail made of? What is it used for?
    F31 What is a bucket made of? What is it used for?
    F32 Talking about a sudden flood in the cellar, you might say, “A water pipe must have ________.”
    F33 A small tool that you hold in one hand, with ‘jaws’ for gripping things: (Show picture.)
    F34 The wooden cross-pieces that you put your feet on when you go up a ladder: (Not a stepladder)
    F35 A small broom that you hold in one hand, and use it in places that are hard to get at: (Show picture.)
    F36 Other kinds of brooms that people use around here:
    F37 Names for an indoor toilet:
    -F37b Joking names for an indoor toilet:
    F38 Utensil kept under the bed for use at night:
    F39 A large pocket knife with blades that fold in and out:
    -F40a What do you put into a bottle to close it—if it’s made of cork?
    -F40b What do you put in a bottle to close it—if it’s made of glass?
    -F41 A girl or woman who comes in to do general work around the house:
    F42 A woman who washes clothes for other people:
    F43 After clothes have been washed, what do you do to get the soap off?
    F44 What do you call a container for coal to use in a stove?
    F45 What do you call the fuel that’s used in an ordinary lamp?
    +F46 What do you call the kind of matches you can strike anywhere? [Not included in all of the later QRs.]
    +F47 What do you call the wire or rubber device with a handle, that is used to kill flies? [Not included in all of the later QRs.]
    +F48 What do you call pages of writing paper glued together at the top with a cardboard back? [Not included in all of the later QRs.]
    +F49 What do you call this? (Show rubber band.) [Not included in all of the later QRs.]
    Dishes
    -G1 A general word meaning cups, saucers, and plates: “When she has company, she always uses her good ________.”
    G2 What names are used around here for a glass that you drink water from?
    G3 A container for salt that’s put on the table—if it’s open (without a cover):
    G4 A container for salt that has a cover with holes in it:
    -G5 A large, flat dish for serving the meat at table:
    G6 Other dishes that you might have on the table for a big dinner or special occasion—for example, Thanksgiving: (Open question)
    -G7 If you have cut flowers in the house, you put them in a ________.
    G8 A bunch of cut flowers: “The bride carried a pretty ________.”
    G9 When you have to get the table ready for a meal, you say “It’s time to ________.”
    G10 When the meal is all over, what do you have to do to the table?
    G11 Other names or nicknames for a toothpick:
    -G12 After the meal, you have to go to the kitchen and ________ the dishes.
    -G13 The cloth that you use to wash the dishes with:
    G14 The rough metal pad that’s used to scour pots and pans:
    G15 When you pour hot water on the dishes to get the soap off, you ________ them.
    G16 What do you dry the dishes with? (Differences—size? material?)
    G17 Other kinds of towels that people use around here: (Open question)
    Foods
    -H1 The first meal in the morning is ________.
    H2 The meal that people eat around the middle of the day:
    H3 The meal that people eat at the end of the day: (The same every day?)
    -H4 Are the names of meals the same on Sundays as on weekdays?
    H5 What do you call a small amount of food eaten between regular meals?
    H6 Words for food in general: “He certainly enjoys his ________.”
    H7 When a housewife is about to prepare a meal—for example, supper—she might say, “I have to go and ________ supper.”
    -H8 When you are having company for a meal and you want them to take their places at the table, you say ________.
    H9 If somebody always eats a considerable amount of food, you say he’s a ________.
    -H10 If somebody never eats very much food, you say he’s a ________.
    H11a If somebody eats rapidly and noisily, you say he ________.
    H11b If he makes a noise with his food, he ________.
    H12 If somebody eating a meal takes little bits of food and leaves most of it on his plate, you say he ________.
    H13 Bread that is not made at home:
    H14 Bread that’s made with cornmeal: (Explain differences.)
    H15 Bread made with wheat flour:
    H16 What do people use to raise the bread before it’s baked?
    H17 What different kinds (of yeast) are used around here? (Describe differences.)
    H18 Are there any special kinds of bread made now or in past years around here? (Open question)
    H19 What do you mean by a biscuit? How are they made? (Description; different kinds; different terms)
    H20a Do you use the word ‘pancakes’ around here?
    H20b What other names do you have for pancakes?
    H21 What do you call the sweet stuff that’s poured over these cakes?
    -H22 What do you call flat pieces of food dipped in batter and fried in deep fat?
    H23 What do you call hot cooked breakfast cereal?
    H24 What names or nicknames do people have around here for boiled cornmeal?
    H25 What names or nicknames do people have around here for fried cornmeal?
    H26 A round cake of dough, cooked in deep fat, with a hole in the center:
    H27 Do you have any joking names for doughnuts (or other word)?
    H28 Different shapes or types of doughnuts (or other word)?
    H29 A round cake, cooked in deep fat, with jelly inside:
    H30 An oblong cake, cooked in deep fat:
    -H31 Other foods made with dough and cooked in deep fat:
    H32 Names used around here for fancy rolls and pastries: (According to shapes, etc.): (Open question)
    -H33 Joking names for eggs:
    H34 What are the parts of an egg?
    H35 When eggs are taken out of the shells and cooked in boiling water, you call them ________ eggs.
    H36 Kinds of soup favored around here—any specialties? (Open question)
    H37 What words do you have for gravy? Any joking ones?
    H38 Other words for bacon (including joking ones):
    -H39 Kinds of sausage that people around here especially favor:
    H40 A small sausage that is put into a long roll or bun to make a sandwich:
    H41 Other kinds of roll or bun sandwiches favored around here—in a round bun or roll:
    *H42 The kind in a much larger, longer bun, that’s a meal in itself: [Early QRs: The kind in a long bun:]
    H43 Foods made from parts of the head and inner organs of an animal: Different kinds: (With and without cornmeal)
    H44 Beef that has been dried to preserve it:
    H45 Dishes made with meat, fish, or poultry that everybody around here would know, but that people in other places might not:
    H46 When meat begins to go bad, so that you can’t eat it, you say it’s ________.
    H47 Kinds of fried potatoes favored around here: (Describe kinds.)
    H48 Baked dishes made of potatoes cut up with meat or cheese:
    H49 Dishes made by boiling potatoes with other foods:
    H50 Dishes made with beans, peas, or corn that everybody around here knows, but people in other places might not:
    -H51 Dishes made with cooked cabbage:
    H52 Dishes made with fresh cabbage:
    -H53 Dishes made with tomatoes:
    -H54 Dishes made with greens: (What kinds of ‘greens’ are eaten?)
    -H55 Different kinds of stew:
    H56 Names for different kinds of pickles favored around here:
    H57 Tasty or spicy side-dishes served with meats:
    H58 Milk that’s just beginning to become sour is ________.
    H59 Milk that becomes thick as it turns sour:
    H60 The lumpy white cheese that is made from sour milk:
    -H61 Other kinds of homemade cheese besides cottage cheese (or other word):
    -H62 What would ‘peach sauce’ mean around here? (Describe.)
    H63 Kinds of desserts especially favored by people around here: (Describe; if any unusual, get recipe.) (Open question)
    H64 The sweet covering spread on top of a cake:
    H65 Foreign foods favored by people around here: (Open question)
    H66a The sweet liquid that you pour over a pudding:
    H66b The sweet liquid that you pour over ice cream:
    H67 Food that was not finished at one meal but saved for another:
    H68 When food remains over from one meal and you heat it again for another meal, you call it ________. For example, “She got out Sunday’s roast and ________ (it).”
    H69 When food is hard on your stomach, you say that it ________.
    H70 When people bring baked dishes, salads, and so forth to a meeting-place and share them together, that’s a ________ meal.
    H71 Words for the last piece of food left on a plate:
    +H72 Words for preparing tea: “Pour on the water and let it ________.”
    -H72a Names for tea according to how it’s made—very strong tea:
    -H72b Names for tea according to how it’s made—very weak tea:
    H73 Words for preparing coffee: the housewife says, “I think I’ll go and ________ some coffee.”
    H74a Different words for coffee according to how it’s made—very strong:
    H74b Different words for coffee according to how it’s made—very weak:
    H75 When a housewife is going to preserve fruit in jars, she says she’s going to ________ some fruit.
    -H76a When clear, sweetened fruit juice is cooked and it begins to thicken, you say it’s starting to ________.
    -H76b Then when it becomes hard, you call it ________.
    -H77 When you are making jam, what do you call the stuff that has to be skimmed off the top?
    H78 Ordinary soft drinks, usually carbonated—what are they called?
    H79 What do you call the exact directions for cooking a certain dish, making a cake, and so on?
    H80 Kinds of candy often made at home around here: (Open question)
    H81 Candy on a stick for children to lick:
    H82a Cheap candies sold especially for schoolchildren around here: (Open question)
    H82b Kinds of cheap candy that used to be sold years ago: (Open question)
    Vegetables and Fruits
    I1 What do you call the garden where you grow carrots, beans, and such things, to eat at home?
    -I2 What general word do you have for vegetables?
    I3 What do you call the large yellowish root vegetable, similar to a turnip, with a strong taste?
    *I4 What vegetables are less commonly grown around here? [Early QRs: Do you have any other names around here for carrots? —for beets? —for turnips? —for lettuce? —for eggplant? —for other vegetables?]
    I5 The kind of onions that keep coming up without replanting year after year:
    I6 The kind of onions that come up fresh early in the year, and you eat them raw:
    I7 The small plants like onions with hollow green leaves that are cut up in a salad:
    I8 When root vegetables get old and tough and are not good to eat, you say they are ________.
    I9 Other names (including nicknames) for potatoes:
    I10 The outside covering of green peas that you break open to get the peas out:
    I11 When somebody takes peas out of the covering like that, you say, “She’s ________ peas.”
    I12 The outside covering of dry beans:
    I13 When you take dry beans out of the cover you are ________ them.
    I14 Kinds of beans that you eat in the pod before they’re dry:
    I15 Some of the beans that you eat in the pod have yellow pods; you call these ________.
    I16 The large flat beans that are not eaten in the pod:
    I17 Beans (not pods) that are dark red when they are dry:
    I18 The smaller beans that are white when they are dry:
    I19 Small white beans with a black spot where they were joined to the pod:
    I20 Other kinds of beans that are grown around here: (Open question)
    -I21 Names or nicknames for tomatoes:
    I22a Names for different kinds of peppers—small hot:
    I22b Names for different kinds of peppers—large hot:
    I22c Names for different kinds of peppers—small sweet:
    I22d Names for different kinds of peppers—large sweet:
    I23 What kinds of squash do people grow around here? (Draw shape or describe.)
    -I24 What kinds of pumpkins do people grow around here?
    I25 Names or nicknames for cucumbers (growing):
    I26 What kinds of melons do people grow around here? (Open question)
    -I27 Do you have any other names or nicknames for cabbage?
    *I28a What kinds of things do you call ‘greens’ around here? Those that are eaten raw: [Early QRs (as I28): What kinds of things do you call greens around here? (Responses were assigned arbitrarily to I28a and/or b.)]
    *I28b Kinds of greens that are cooked: [Early QRs: see note at I28a.]
    I29 Names or nicknames for asparagus:
    I30 Other names for rhubarb:
    I31 When a corn stalk is well grown, what comes out at the top?
    -I32 How do you know when corn is ready to eat?
    I33 What do you call ears of corn that are just right for eating?
    I34 If you don’t have sweet corn, you can always eat young ________.
    I35 What kitchen herbs are grown and used in cooking around here?
    -I36 What do you call a bunch of kitchen herbs—for example, used in soup?
    I37 Small plants shaped like an umbrella that grow in woods and fields—which are safe to eat: (Any nicknames?)
    I38 Small plants shaped like an umbrella that grow in woods and fields—which are not safe to eat:
    I39 What do you call the thick outside covering of a walnut?
    I40 The hard part inside the husk (or other word) of a walnut that you have to break:
    I41 The part of the nut that you eat:
    I42 Other names or nicknames used around here for peanuts:
    I43 What kinds of nuts grow wild around here? (Open question)
    I44 What kinds of berries grow wild around here? (Open question)
    -I45 If berries are not safe to eat, you’d say, “Don’t eat those berries, they’re ________.”
    I46 Other kinds of fruits that grow wild around here: (Open question)
    I47 When you pull the stem out of a strawberry, what do you call the green part that comes off with the stem?
    I48 The hard center of a cherry: you call that a cherry ________.
    I49 And the hard center of a plum: that’s a plum ________.
    I50 And the hard center of a peach: that’s a peach ________.
    I51 The kind of a peach where the hard center is loose:
    I52 The kind of a peach where the hard center is tight to the flesh:
    I53 Other fruits grown around here: any special varieties? (Open question)
    Domestic Animals
    J1 What do you call a dog of mixed breed?
    J2 What joking or uncomplimentary words do you have for dogs?
    J3a To make a female dog so that she can’t breed, she must be ________.
    J3b To make a female cat so that she can’t breed, she must be ________.
    -J4 A cat with a very short tail:
    J5 A cat with fur of mixed colors:
    J6 A cat that catches lots of rats and mice—you’d say, “She’s a good ________.”
    -J7 How do people around here call to a dog to make it come?
    J8 To tell a dog to attack an animal or a person, you’d say, “________.”
    J9a To tell a dog to lie down on the ground and keep still:
    +J9b To tell a dog to stand without moving:
    J10 To call a cat to make it come, you say “________.”
    Farm Animals
    K1 A cow that is giving milk is a ________.
    -K2 A cow that gives good milk or a lot of milk—she’s ________.
    K3a When a cow stops giving milk, you say she ________.
    +K3b When a cow stops giving milk, you say she’s a ________.
    K4 The cow’s udder is called the ________.
    -K5 Milk comes out of the ________.
    K6 And taking the last of the milk from the udder:
    K7 What sickness can a cow get in her udder—for example, if she’s left unmilked too long?
    K8 Joking terms for milking a cow: A farmer might say, “Well, it’s time to go out and ________.”
    K9 If one quarter of a cow’s udder does not give milk, you say she’s ________.
    K10 Words used about a cow that is going to have a calf:
    K11 When a cow has a calf, you say she ________.
    K12 A cow that has never had horns:
    K13 A cow that has had her horns cut off:
    K14 Milk that has a taste from something the cow ate in the pasture—you say, “That milk is ________.”
    K15 A thin, bony, or poor-looking cow:
    K16 A cow with a bad temper:
    -K17 How is the word ‘heifer’ used around here?
    K18 What kind of mark is used around here to identify a cow? (Describe; where is it put?)
    K19 Noise made by a calf that’s taken away from its mother:
    K20 A calf that is sold for meat:
    K21 The noise a cow makes, calling for her calf:
    K22 Words used for a bull:
    K23 Words used by women or in mixed company for a bull:
    K24 What does the word ‘ox’ mean around here?
    K25 What is a ‘steer’?
    K26 If six oxen are hitched together two and two, you have three ________.
    K27 What do you call the sharp-pointed stick used to get oxen to move?
    K28 What are the chief diseases that cows have around here? (Open question)
    -K29 A male horse kept for breeding:
    -K30 A castrated horse:
    -K31 A horse that’s only partly castrated:
    K32a With a team of horses, what do you call the horse on the driver’s right hand?
    K32b The horse on the left side in plowing or hauling:
    -K33 When you’re driving horses (or mules), how do you make them start?
    K34 What do you say to make the horses stop? (Get actual exclamation.)
    -K35a What do you say to make the horses or mules turn right?
    -K35b What do you say to make the horses or mules turn left?
    K36a What do you say to make a horse go faster?
    K36b What do you say to make a horse go backwards?
    K37 What do you call a horse of mixed colors?
    K38 A horse of a dirty white color:
    K39 What other names do you have for horses according to their colors? (Open question)
    K40 The sound that a horse makes:
    K41 A horse with its tail cut short is called a ________.
    K42 A horse that is rough, wild, or dangerous:
    K43 A horse that was not intentionally bred, or bred by accident:
    K44 A bony or poor-looking horse:
    K45 When a mare has had a young horse, you say she has just ________.
    -K46 If a horse or cow is deformed, what words are used about it?
    K47 What diseases do horses or mules commonly get around here? (Open question)
    K48 When a horse is short of breath, you say it’s ________.
    K49 You take a horse to the blacksmith to have it ________.
    K50 Joking nicknames for mules:
    K51 Talking about pigs, a very young one is called a ________.
    -K51b A half-grown pig is a ________.
    -K51c A full-grown pig is a ________.
    K52 A male pig kept for breeding is a ________. (Any hesitation about using words like this before women?)
    -K53 Words used by women or in mixed company for a male breeding-pig:
    K54 Names used around here for the smallest pig in a litter:
    K55 A pig that doesn’t grow well and is not worth keeping:
    -K56 What do you call the stiff hairs on a pig?
    K57 The big teeth that stick out of a boar’s mouth:
    K58 A castrated pig is a ________.
    K59 What do pigs eat out of?
    K60 When somebody is going to give the pigs food, he says, “I’m going to ________.”
    K61 What do you call the pig’s nose?
    K62 What do you call a female sheep?
    K63 What do you call a male sheep?
    -K63b What do you call a male sheep that has been castrated?
    -K64 Words used by women or in mixed company for a male sheep:
    -K65 A sheep that’s kept as a pet:
    K66 The noise made by a sheep:
    -K67a Words for a male goat:
    -K67b Words for a female goat:
    K68 What do you call a goat that habitually strikes people with its horns?
    -K69 The noise that a goat makes:
    K70 Words used around here for castrating an animal:
    -K71 A hen that is producing eggs is called a ________.
    K72 When the hen stops laying and begins to sit on the eggs to hatch them, she’s a ________.
    K73 What names do you have for the rump of a cooked chicken?
    K74 A bone from the breast of a chicken, shaped like a horseshoe:
    K75 A male turkey is called a ________.
    K76 What other kinds of poultry are raised around here? (Open question)
    -K77 What does the word ‘fowl’ refer to around here?
    K78 What diseases do chickens commonly get around here? (Open question)
    K79 How do you call the chickens to you at feeding time?
    K80 The call that’s used around here to get the cows in from the pasture:
    K81 To make a cow stand still—for example, when milking her—you say, “________.”
    K82 The call used around here to get horses in from the pasture:
    K83 To call a calf to you at feeding time:
    K84 The call used around here to get the pigs in at feeding time:
    K85 The call to sheep to come in from the pasture:
    Farming
    L1 A man who is employed to help with work on a farm:
    L2 The extra house on a large farm where a hired man and his family live:
    L3 A man who lives on the farm and does the work, but divides the expenses and profits with the owner:
    -L4a A general word for work done every morning and evening on a farm, such as feeding livestock, cleaning stalls, etc.:
    L4b What do you call the time early in the morning and at night when you have to feed livestock, clean stalls, and so on? A person might say, “I’ve got to go now, it’s ________.”
    L5 When a farmer gets help on a job from his neighbors in return for his help on their farms later on, you call it ________.
    L6a What do you call a piece of land under cultivation—less than an acre?
    L6b A piece of land under cultivation—if it’s several acres:
    L7 A piece of land with a hay crop planted on it:
    L8 Hay that grows naturally in damp places:
    L9a What kinds of grass are grown for hay around here? (Open question)
    +L9b Hay from other kinds of plants (not grass): (Open question)
    L10 After hay has been cut, then it grows back and you cut it again, you’d call that ________.
    L11 What do you do to hay in the field after it’s cut?
    L12 What do you call the small piles of hay standing in the field?
    L13 The kind of wagon used for carrying hay: (Note: special wagon, or frame put on ordinary wagon?)
    L14 A large pile of hay stored outdoors: (Do names differ according to shape?)
    L15 When you are putting hay into a building for storage, you say you are ________.
    L16 Machines used around here in handling hay: (Open question)
    L17 Other names around here for manure used in the fields: (Also joking names)
    L18 Kinds of plows used around here, at present and in the past: (Get descriptions.) (Open question)
    -L19 When you plow land or sod that has never been plowed before, you’re ________.
    *L20 The implement used in a field after it’s been plowed to break up the lumps: (Different kinds?) [Early QRs: The implement with points used in a field to break up lumps:]
    -L21 What kinds of grain are grown around here—anything special? (Open question)
    L22 When talking about a crop he intends to plant—for example, oats—a farmer might say, “This year, I’m going to ________ a crop of oats/corn/cotton, etc.” (Name the local crops in turn and record the verb.)
    L23 What machinery is used around here in putting in the seed? (Which machine for which crop?)
    L24 A crop or part of a crop that springs up and grows by itself from old seed:
    L25 The implement used to clean out weeds and loosen the earth between rows of corn:
    -L26 Sayings about corn and other important crops around here—when to put it in, how fast it should grow, etc.:
    -L27 When you turn the pigs into a cornfield to finish it off, you ________.
    L28 Tools used in the past for cutting grain:
    L29 Machines now used for cutting grain:
    L30a When grain is cut it is (or used to be) tied up in ________.
    L30b Then these sheaves (or other word) are set together in piles called ________.
    L31 What do you call the top bundle of a shock (or other word)?
    L32a In early days, how was the grain separated from the straw?
    L32b In early days, how was the grain separated from the chaff? (Describe methods.)
    L33 How is the grain separated from the straw nowadays?
    L34 What are the most important crops grown around here? (Open question)
    L35 Hand tools used for cutting underbrush and digging out roots:
    L36 What do you call it around here when you dig out roots and underbrush to make a new field? (New methods: bulldozing, etc.)
    L37 A hand tool used for cutting weeds and grass:
    L38 What do you use around here to sharpen tools in the field?
    L39 An iron bar with a bent end, used for pulling nails, opening boxes, and so on: (Be sure of object named.)
    L40 A long iron bar used to move rocks and other heavy things:
    L41 A device for moving dirt and other loads, with one wheel in front and handles to lift and push it behind:
    L42 Do you use the word ‘rig’ around here? What kind of thing do you call a ‘rig’?
    L43a When somebody is going to get horses ready to work, he might say, “I’ll ________ the horses.”
    L43b To get a horse ready to ride:
    L44 On a buggy, two long pieces of wood stick out in front and the horse goes between them. You call them the ________.
    L45 The long piece of wood that sticks out in front of a wagon, and you put a horse on each side:
    L46 Behind each horse there’s a movable bar (the leathers or ropes from the collar are fastened to it)—what would you call this?
    L47 The two movable bars behind a team of horses are fastened to a longer piece; this is a ________.
    L48 The part of a wagon that goes crosswise underneath and has a wheel at each end:
    L49 Leathers or ropes, fastened to the collar, that a horse or mule pulls by:
    -L50 What does the word ‘team’ mean on farms around here?
    L51 The leathers or ropes that a driver holds to guide a horse:
    L52 Pieces of leather used to cover the sides of a horse’s eyes:
    L53a The band that goes under a horse’s middle to hold a saddle on:
    L53b The band that goes under a horse’s middle to hold a saddle on—what is it called if it’s a part of a work harness?
    L54 If someone was transporting firewood (or dirt) in a wagon, you’d say he was ________ firewood.
    L55 If the wagon was only partly full, you’d say he had a ________.
    L56 The amount of wood a person can carry in both arms: “We’re out of firewood
    —I’ll just get in a ________.”
    L57 A low wooden platform used for bringing stones or heavy things out of the fields:
    L58 An implement with an A-shaped frame (Make gesture) that you put boards on to saw them:
    L59 An implement with an X-frame (Gesture) to hold firewood for sawing:
    L60 A fence made of stone or rock without mortar:
    -L60b A fence of stone built with mortar:
    L61 Fences made of solid logs, now or in the past: (Describe construction.)
    L62 A fence made of split logs: (Describe differences.)
    L63 Kinds of fences made with wire: (Open question)
    L64 The kind of wooden fence that’s built around a garden or near a house:
    L65 What other kinds of fences, past or present, do you have around here? (Describe construction.) (Open question)
    Farm Buildings
    M1 What different or special kinds of barns do you have around here according to their use or the way they are built? (Open question)
    M2 What do you call the small wooden construction on top of a barn with slats for ventilation? (It sometimes has a weathervane on it.)
    M3 The place inside a barn for storing hay:
    -M4a What do you call the spaces or sections between the joists in a barn?
    -M4b What do you call the spaces or sections between the joists in a shed?
    M5 What do you call the hole for throwing hay down below?
    M6 The place where grain is kept in a barn:
    -M7 A separate building where grain is kept:
    M8 The building where corn is kept:
    M9 The part of a barn where horses are kept:
    M10 The part of the barn where cows are kept:
    M11 What do you put the cow’s head through when she stands in the barn?
    M12 What do you keep food for the cattle in over winter?
    M13 The space near the barn with a fence around it where you keep the livestock:
    M14 The open area around or next to the barn:
    M15 The place outdoors where pigs are kept:
    M16 The small shelter for a hen that can be moved about from place to place:
    M17 A building where chickens or hens are kept:
    M18 The separate building where milk is kept cool:
    M19 A place for keeping carrots, turnips, potatoes, and so on over the winter:
    M20 A small building where meat or fish are smoked and cured:
    M21a An outside toilet building:
    M21b Joking names for an outside toilet building:
    M22 What other kinds of buildings would there be on farms around here? (Open question)
    Vehicles and Transportation
    N1 Other names for an ambulance:
    N2 The car used to carry a dead body for burial:
    N3 The car or wagon that takes arrested people to the police station or to jail:
    N4 A police vehicle with a red, blue, or yellow flashing light on top:
    N5 Nicknames for an automobile, especially an old or broken-down car:
    N6 An old car that has been fixed up to make it go fast or make a lot of noise:
    N7 If you had made a trip by car to a city (Supply local name) you might say, “We ________ to X last week.”
    N8 If somebody gave you lessons in driving a car, you might say, “He ________ me how to drive.”
    N9 The colored lights that control the cars at busy road crossings:
    N10 What other words are used around here for the bright and dim lights on a car?
    N11 A very large truck used to haul freight, new cars, and other big loads:
    N12 Names for somebody who drives carelessly or not well:
    N13 If someone has been drinking and then drives a car, he may be arrested for:
    N14 The place where you go to get gasoline put into a car:
    N15a Gas stations (or other word) usually have two kinds of gasoline: A cheaper kind that’s called ________.
    N15b Gas stations (or other word) usually have two kinds of gasoline: A more expensive kind that’s called ________.
    N16a Names for a highway with two lanes on each side and a separation down the middle:
    N16b Names for a highway with two lanes on each side and a separation down the middle—if you have to pay to drive on it:
    N17 What do you call the separating area in the middle of a four-lane road?
    N18 How do you speak of roads that have numbers or letters? For example, if someone asked directions to get to (Supply local city name), you might say, “Take ________.”
    N19 What do you call a structure that carries a road above railroad tracks, or above another road or a deep gully?
    N20 What do you call a circular arrangement on one level at a big intersection, where cars can go around till they come to the road they want?
    N21 Roads that are surfaced with smooth black pavement:
    N22 When a road that is surfaced with smooth pavement gets wet so that cars slip or skid on it, you say it’s ________.
    N23 Other kinds of paved roads around here:
    N24 A ditch along the side of a graded road:
    N25 The unpaved part of a graded road along the edge of the pavement:
    -N26 A road that follows surveyors’ divisions:
    N27a Names around here for different kinds of unpaved roads: (Open question)
    N27b When unpaved roads get very rough, you call them ________.
    N28 A road that connects a big highway with stores and business places set back from it:
    N29 What names are used around here for a less important road running back from a main road?
    N30 What do you call a sudden short dip in a road?
    N31 A place in a road where animals regularly go across:
    N32 A place where roads cross at right angles: (Gesture.)
    N33 A man whose job is to take care of roads in a certain locality:
    N34 An electric car that runs on tracks in a city—any around here?
    N35 A fast train that goes from one big city to another without stopping at all the stations:
    -N36 Names for a slow train or one that stops at every station:
    N37 Joking names for a branch railroad that is not very important or gives poor service:
    N38 On a trip when you have to change trains and wait a while between them, you might say, “I have a two-hour ________ in Chicago.”
    N39 The place where you go to begin a trip and where you get off at the end:
    N40a (In snow areas) What different kinds of sleighs do you have around here for hauling loads?
    N40b Different kinds of sleighs for carrying people:
    N40c Different kinds of sleighs for carrying other things:
    N41a What kinds of horse-drawn vehicles are used around here, or used to be, to carry people?
    N41b Horse-drawn vehicles to carry heavy loads:
    N41c Horse-drawn vehicles to carry light loads:
    N42 Vehicles for a baby or small child—the kind it can lie down in:
    N43 Vehicles for a small child—the kind it has to sit up in:
    N44 In a town, the strip of grass and trees between the sidewalk and the curb:
    Boats and Sailing
    O1 What do you call a small rowboat, not big enough to hold more than two people?
    O2 Nicknames around here for an old, clumsy boat:
    O3 A small platform sticking out into the water where boats can tie up, and people can get into them:
    O4 A much larger and solider structure where ships can come to land:
    O5 The posts standing in the water which these platforms rest on:
    O6 If a wooden boat is leaking, what do you have to do to stop the leaks?
    O7 What do you call a place where boats can be rented?
    O8 The devices on the sides of a boat that hold the oars in place:
    O9 What kinds of sailboats are used around here? (Open question)
    O10 What other kinds of boats are used around here? (Open question)
    O11 What other names do you have for an outboard motor?
    O12 A disturbance caused by wind which seems to run and spread quickly along the surface of water:
    O13 A heavy stone structure, often with masonry work, that encloses and protects a harbor:
    O14a A floating structure out in a large lake or the sea usually marking a channel for boats:
    O14b What different kinds of buoys are there? (Open question)
    O15 What names do you have for different kinds of waves around here, referring to how the water acts? (Open question)
    O16 What do you call the stirred-up water following a boat?
    O17 When the water is very smooth and still, you call that a ________.
    O18 Different currents or actions of the water that are important when you’re in a boat: (Get explanations.)
    O19 Different kinds or degrees of wind that are important when you’re in a boat: (Open question)
    -O20 Winds from particular directions:
    *O21 When men out in seagoing boats get together for a visit and a cup of hot coffee, that’s called a ________. [Early QRs: When men out in boats . . .]
    Fishing, Hunting, Wildlife
    P1 What kinds of freshwater fish are caught around here that are good to eat? (Open question)
    P2 (In saltwater areas)What kinds of saltwater fish caught around here are good to eat? (Open question)
    P3 Freshwater fish that are not good to eat: (Open question)
    P4 Saltwater fish that are not good to eat: (Open question)
    P5 What do you call the common worm used as bait?
    *P6 Other kinds of worms also used for bait: (Open question) [Early QRs: A much larger worm also used for bait:]
    P7 Small fish used as bait for bigger fish:
    -P8 Do fishermen around here use ‘white bait’? If answer is ‘yes’, what is it?
    P9 When you’re fishing but not catching any, you might say, “________.”
    -P10 When the fishing is very good, you might say:
    -P11 When the fish just begins to take the bait, you say:
    -P12 When the fish takes the bait with a quick pull:
    P13 What other ways of fishing do you have around here besides the ordinary hook and line? (Special kinds of bait, hooks, lures, nets, traps, spears, etc.?) (Open question)
    P14 If commercial fishing is done around here, what do the fishermen go out after? (Open question)
    P15 What do you call fishing that’s done from a slowly moving boat?
    P16 When fishermen throw bits of bait in the water to attract fish—what do you call this?
    P17 What do you call it around here when the people fish by lowering a line and sinker close to the bottom of the water?
    P18 What kinds of shellfish are common around here? (Open question)
    P19 What do you call the small, freshwater crayfish around here?
    P20 Very young frogs—when they still have tails but no legs:
    P21 Small frogs that sing or chirp loudly in spring:
    P22 Names or nicknames for a very large frog that makes a deep, loud sound:
    P23 Names for the animal similar to the frog that lives away from water:
    P24 What kinds of turtles are found around here? (Open question)
    P25 What kinds of snakes are found around here? (Open question)
    P26 Names and nicknames around here for a skunk:
    P27 What kinds of squirrels do you have around here? (Open question)
    -P28 What other names do you have for the chipmunk?
    *P29 Do you have ‘gophers’ around here? If yes, what other name do they have, or what other animal are they most like? (The term is applied differently in different places.) [Early QRs: Do you have gophers around here? (If yes) What are they like? (The term is applied in different places to:)]
    P30 Do you have wild rabbits around here? What kinds?
    P31 What other names or nicknames do you have around here for the groundhog, muskrat, opossum, panther, porcupine, raccoon, wildcat?
    P32 What other kinds of wild animals do you have around here? (Open question)
    -P33 When an animal goes into its hole to sleep all winter, it ________. (What animals?)
    -P34 Names or nicknames for a female deer:
    P35a Names or nicknames for any deer shot illegally:
    +P35b Illegal methods of shooting deer:
    P36 When a hunter sees a deer or other game animal and gets so excited he can’t shoot, he has ________.
    P37a Nicknames for a rifle:
    P37b Nicknames for a shotgun:
    P38 What do you put into a rifle to shoot?
    -P38b What do you put into a shotgun?
    P39a When a hunter or a dog finds a game animal and makes it start running, you’d say he ________ it.
    P39b If the dog makes a bird or a covey fly, you’d say he ________.
    Birds
    Q1 What do you call the kind of owl that makes a shrill, trembling cry?
    Q2 Other kinds of owls found around here: (Open question)
    Q3 Other birds that come out only after dark: (Open question)
    Q4 What kinds of hawks are found around here? (Open question)
    Q5 What kinds of wild ducks do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q6 What kinds of wild geese do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q7 Names and nicknames for other kinds of game birds around here: (Open question)
    Q8 A water bird that makes a booming sound before rain and often stands with its beak pointed almost straight up:
    Q9 The bird that looks like a small, dull-colored duck and is commonly found on ponds and lakes:
    Q10 Other water birds and marsh birds common around here: (Open question)
    Q11 What kinds of blackbirds do you have around here? (Open question)
    -Q12 What kinds of crows do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q13 Names around here for the vulture:
    Q14 What other names do you have around here for these birds: bobolink, brown thrasher, catbird, cowbird, cuckoo, goldfinch, killdeer, kingbird, martin, mockingbird, shrike, thrush?
    Q15 What different kinds of larks do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q16 What kinds of jays do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q17 What kinds of woodpeckers do you have around here? (Open question)
    Q18 Joking names and nicknames for woodpeckers:
    -Q19 Other birds similar to the whippoorwill:
    Q20 What kinds of swallows and birds like them do you have around here?
    Q21 Different kinds of sparrows around here:
    Q22 Joking names or nicknames for the common sparrow:
    Q23 The insect-eating bird that goes headfirst down a tree trunk:
    Insects
    R1 What do you call the small insect that flies at night and flashes a light at its tail?
    R2 What other names do you have around here for the dragonfly?
    -R3 Whitish, worm-like creatures, found in ponds, that hatch into dobsonflies, and are commonly used for fish bait:
    R4 A large winged insect that hatches in summer in great numbers around lakes or rivers, crowds around lights, lives only a day or so, and is good fish bait:
    R5 A big brown beetle that comes out in large numbers in spring and early summer, and flies with a buzzing sound: (Note: some are green.)
    R6 What other names do people have around here for grasshoppers?
    R7 Insects that sit in trees or bushes in hot weather and make a sharp, buzzing sound:
    R8 Other kinds of creatures that make a clicking or shrilling or chirping kind of sound: (Open question)
    R9a An insect from two to four inches long that lives in bushes and looks like a dead twig:
    +R9b An insect that holds up its front feet as if saying a prayer:
    R10 Very small flies that don’t sting, often seen hovering in large groups or bunches outdoors in summer:
    R11 A very tiny fly that you can hardly see, but that stings:
    R12 What other kinds of flies are common around here—for example, those that fly around animals? (Open question)
    R13 Flies that come to meat or fruit:
    R14 Small worm-like things (seen in rain barrels or standing water) that hatch into mosquitoes:
    R15a What other names or nicknames do you have around here for mosquitoes?
    R15b Any names for an extra-big mosquito?
    -R16 What do you call the fine, thin cloth that lets air in but keeps mosquitoes and other insects out?
    R17 What names do you have for the big black ants that sting?
    R18 What other kinds of ants do you have around here? (Open question)
    R19a The place where bees live and store their honey—tame bees:
    R19b And the place where wild bees live and store their honey:
    R20 Wasps that build their nests of mud: (Get description of insect and nest: color, size, and shape.)
    R21 Are there any other kinds of stinging insects around here? (Open question)
    R22 Very small red insects, almost too small to see, that get under your skin and cause itching:
    R23a Insects or other creatures that fasten themselves to the skin and suck blood—on land:
    R23b Blood-sucking creatures—in water:
    R24 What other names are used around here for a bedbug?
    R25 Joking names for a head louse, or body louse:
    R26 Any other names for the small greenish lice that come on plants?
    *R27 What kinds of caterpillars or similar worms do you have around here? (Open question) [Early QRs: What do you call the soft worm that eats the leaves on plants and turns into a butterfly?]
    R28 What different kinds of spiders do you have around here? (Open question)
    R29a What do you call the thing that a spider spins and lives in?—If it is indoors:
    R29b What the spider spins—if it is outdoors:
    +R30 What other kinds of beetles are known around here—for example, because of their odor or color or something else? (Open question) [This Qu. was included in some early QRs.]
    Wildflowers, Weeds
    S1 What other names do you have around here for the jack-in-the-pulpit?
    S2 What do you call the flower that comes up in the woods early in spring, with three white petals that turn pink as the flower grows older?
    S3 A flower like a large violet with a yellow center and small ragged leaves—it comes up early in spring on open, stony hilltops:
    S4 Other names around here for the mayapple: (Woodside plant, not a tree, with two large spreading leaves; they grow in patches and have a small yellow fruit late in summer.)
    S5 Other names around here for the wild morning glory:
    S6 Other names around here for Queen Anne’s lace: (Summertime roadside weed two feet high or so with a lacy white top)
    S7 A kind of daisy, bright yellow with a dark center, that grows along roadsides in late summer:
    S8 A common kind of wild grass that grows in fields: it spreads by sending out long underground roots, and it’s hard to get rid of:
    S9 Other kinds of grass that are hard to get rid of: (Open question)
    -S10 A shrub that gets covered with bright yellow, spicy-smelling flowers early in spring:
    *S11 What other names do you have around here for: bachelor’s button, blue violet, bluets, dandelion, dog-tooth violet, peony, wild snapdragon, zinnia? [Early QRs included “iris” in this list.]
    -S12a What do you call the sharp points along the stems of rose bushes, berry bushes, and so on?—large ones:
    -S12b What do you call the sharp points along the stems of rose bushes, berry bushes, and so on?—small ones:
    S13 There’s a common wild bush with bunches of round, prickly seeds; when they get dry they stick to your clothing—what are these called around here?
    S14 Other prickly seeds, small and flat, with two prongs at one end, that cling to clothing:
    S15 Do you have any other weed seeds that cling to clothing? (Open question)
    S16 A three-leaved plant that grows in woods and countryside and makes people’s skin itch and swell:
    S17 What other kinds of plants do you have around here that will cause itching and swelling?
    S18 A kind of mushroom that grows like a globe (Gesture)—sometimes gets as big as a man’s head:
    S19 Mushrooms that grow out like brackets from the sides of trees:
    S20 A common weed that grows on open hillsides: It has velvety green leaves close to the ground, and a tall stalk with small yellow flowers on a spike at the top:
    S21 What other weeds do you have around here that are a trouble in gardens and fields? (Open question)
    S22 What do you call the bright yellow flowers that bloom in clusters in marshes in early springtime?
    S23 Pale blue flowers with downy leaves and cups that come up on open, stony hillsides in March or early April:
    S24 A wild flower that grows in swamps and marshes and looks like a small blue iris: (Sometimes other colors)
    S25 What do you call the small wild chrysanthemum-like flowers (blue, purple, white) that bloom in fields late in the fall?
    S26a What other wildflowers do you have around here, not yet mentioned? roadside flowers: (Open question)
    S26b Wildflowers that grow in water or wet places: (Open question)
    S26c Wildflowers that grow in woods: (Open question)
    +S26d Wildflowers that grow in meadows: (Open question)
    +S26e Other wildflowers not yet mentioned: (Open question)
    Trees, Bushes, etc.
    T1 What do you call a bunch of trees growing together in open country, especially on a hill?
    T2a What do you call a piece of land covered with trees—if it’s only a few acres?
    T2b What do you call a piece of land covered with trees—if it’s a large acreage?
    T3 The tree that produces syrup and sugar:
    T4 The place where these trees grow together and sap is gathered:
    T5 What kinds of evergreens, other than pine, do you have around here? (Open question)
    T6 The pointed leaves that fall from pine trees:
    T7 The sticky stuff that comes out of pine trees:
    T8 Joints of pine wood that burn easily and make good fuel:
    T9 The common shade tree with large heart-shaped leaves, clusters of white blossoms, and long thin seed pods or ‘beans’:
    T10 What different kinds of oak trees grow around here? Any special kinds? (Open question)
    T11 What different kinds of elm trees grow around here? (Open question)
    T12 The kind of poplar tree that has sticky, sweet-smelling buds:
    *T13 What other names do you have around here for these trees: box elder, hackberry, linden, Osage orange, poplar, sumac, sycamore, tamarack, tulip tree? [Early QRs did not include “Osage orange” in this list.]
    T14 What different kinds of maples do you have around here? (Open question)
    T15 What kinds of swamp trees do you have? (Open question)
    T16 What kinds of trees are ‘special’ around here? (Open question)
    +T17 What different kinds of pine trees do you have around here? (Open question) [This Qu. was included in some early QRs.]
    Buying and Selling, Money
    U1a When you are going to a store or several stores to buy things, you say, “I’m going ________.”
    U1b Do you use a different expression if you’re buying groceries?
    U2 What do you call a piece of clothing not made at home—one that you buy?
    U3 A coat, dress, or other garment that is passed on from one person to another (or an older child to a younger one):
    U4 A place where you can take something valuable and borrow money on it:
    U5 Someone who sells small articles on a street corner:
    U6 Someone who sells vegetables or other articles from a wagon or truck, going from house to house:
    U7 A man who goes from town to town selling things:
    U8a Other ways of saying, “It cost me ten dollars.”
    U8b Similar expressions meaning “I paid ten dollars for it.”
    U9 If you buy something for much less than it usually costs, you say, “At ten dollars it was a ________!”
    -U10 If something costs a great deal, or more than you think it’s worth, you might say, “That’s ________.”
    U11 If you buy something but don’t pay cash for it, you might say, “I ________.”
    U12 If you were buying something and you argued with the person selling it till you made him lower the price, you might say, “I ________.”
    U13 When buying or exchanging something that you have not seen, you say you’re getting it ________.
    U14 When you’re exchanging with somebody when neither one has seen what the other has (children often do this) you’d call that a ________.
    U15 When you’re buying something, if the seller puts in a little extra to make you feel that you’re getting a good bargain, you call that ________.
    U16 If somebody was caught short of money and went to a friend to get some, he might say, “I need five dollars before Saturday, will you ________ it to me?”
    U17 Names or nicknames for a person who doesn’t pay his bills:
    U18 If you force somebody to pay money that he owes you, but that he did not want to pay, you might say, “I finally made him ________.”
    U19a Words used around here for money in general: “He’s certainly got the ________.”
    U19b Talking of paper money: “He always carries a big ________.”
    U20 Words used for dollars around here: “It cost a hundred ________.”
    U21 Other words for ‘one cent’:
    U22 Other words around here for a five-cent piece:
    U23 Other words for a 25-cent piece:
    U24 Other words for a 50-cent piece:
    -U25 Other words for seventy-five cents:
    U26 Names or nicknames around here for a paper dollar:
    U27 Names for a silver dollar:
    U28a Names for other kinds of paper money—a five-dollar bill:
    U28b Names for other kinds of paper money—a ten-dollar bill:
    U28c Names for other kinds of paper money—a twenty-dollar bill:
    U29 Names or nicknames around here for worthless money:
    U30 What do you keep money in when you carry it around with you? (Different shapes, different for men and women, etc.)
    -U31 What you might say about a person who spends money very freely: “He’s certainly ________.”
    U32 Words and expressions used about a very generous person: “He’s ________.”
    U33 Names or nicknames for a stingy person:
    -U34 Other words and expressions around here meaning ‘stingy,’ especially when a person saves money in a mean way:
    U35 Words meaning thrifty but not in a complimentary way: “She’s not a bad housekeeper, but very ________.”
    U36a Words and expressions about a person who saves in a mean way or is greedy in money matters: “He’s an awful ________.”
    U36b Words and expressions used to describe a person who saves in a mean way or is greedy in money matters: “She certainly is ________.”
    U37 Words and expressions about somebody who has plenty of money:
    U38a Words referring to a great deal of money: “He’s got ________ (of money).”
    U38b Words referring to a great deal of money: “He made a ________ (of money).”
    U39 Somebody who has lost all his money: “During the depression he ________.”
    U40 Somebody who is temporarily out of money: You might say, “At the moment he’s ________.”
    U41a Somebody who has lost everything and is very poor: “He’s ________.”
    U41b Somebody who has lost everything and is very poor: “He’s poor as ________.”
    -U42 When somebody pretends to be poor but you know he’s not, you say he’s ________.
    +U43 What do you call the kind of store where most articles cost (or used to cost) only five or ten cents?
    Honesty and Dishonesty
    V1 When you suspect that somebody is trying to deceive you, or that something is going on behind your back, you say, “There’s ________.”
    V2a What do you call a deceiving person, or somebody that you can’t trust? [V2 in early QRs]
    *V2b About a deceiving person, or somebody that you can’t trust, you might say: “I wouldn’t trust him ________.” [Early QRs (as V3b): About a thoroughly dishonest person you might say, “I wouldn’t trust him ________.”]
    *V2c About a deceiving person, or somebody that you can’t trust, you might say: “I wouldn’t trust him any further than I could ________.” [Early QRs (as V3b): About a thoroughly dishonest person you might say, “I wouldn’t trust him any further/farther than I could ________.”]
    -V3 And about a thoroughly dishonest person, you might say, “He’s a ________.”
    V4 Other words for stealing something valuable—for example, a watch: “Yesterday somebody ________ my watch.”
    V5a To take something of small value that doesn’t belong to you—for example, a child taking cookies: “Who’s been ________ the cookies?”
    V5b If you take something that nobody seems to own, you might say, “Before anybody else gets it, I’m going to ________ this.”
    V6 What words are used around here for a thief—any kind of thief?
    V7 A person who sets out to cheat others while pretending to be honest:
    V8a What do you call a paper ordering somebody to appear in court? “The sheriff came with a ________ for him.”
    V8b Of a person who has been given a paper ordering him into court you might say: “He was ________ into court.”
    V9 What nicknames do people have around here for a policeman?
    V10a And what joking names are there for a sheriff?
    V10b And what joking names for a marshal?
    V10c And what joking names for a constable?
    V11 What joking names do you have around here for a county or city jail?
    V12 Words for the amount of time a person has to spend in jail—for example, “He’s in for a ten-year ________.”
    Clothing, Men’s and Women’s
    W1a What do you open up and hold over your head when it rains?
    W1b If you use an umbrella (or other word) when the sun is too hot, you call it a ________.
    W1c What joking names do people have for an umbrella around here?
    W2 What do you call a cloth bonnet worn by women for protection from the sun?
    W3 A piece of cloth that a woman folds over her head and ties under her chin:
    W4 What names do you have around here for men’s coats or jackets for work and outdoor wear?
    -W5 The garment without sleeves that a man wears under his coat:
    W6 What do you mean by the word ‘blouse’—for women, and for men?
    W7 If a man doesn’t use a belt, what does he wear over his shoulders to hold up his trousers?
    W8 Names and nicknames for low canvas-top shoes with rubber soles:
    W9 A work garment, usually of blue cloth, covering the legs and sometimes the chest, worn by farmers:
    W10 Work trousers made of rough cloth, usually blue, —different names and kinds:
    W11 Men’s low, rough work-shoes—what names do you have for them around here?
    W12a Heavy pieces of metal fastened under the soles of boots to keep them from slipping:
    W12b Metal pieces under the tips of shoes to prevent wear:
    -W13 What kinds of rubber footwear are worn around here?
    W14 Names for underwear, including joking names. Men’s—long, men’s—short, women’s—long, women’s—short:
    W15 A shirt-length undergarment worn by women:
    W16a The full-length garment that a woman wears under her dress:
    W16b The garment worn by a woman under her dress—if it only goes from the waist down:
    -W17a Names and nicknames for clothes men wear to sleep in:
    -W17b Names and nicknames for clothes women wear to sleep in:
    -W18a The long, coat-like garment often worn by men around the house over pajamas:
    -W18b The long, coat-like garment often worn by women around the house over nightclothes:
    W19 Names and nicknames for the folded cloth worn by a baby in place of pants:
    W20 If somebody has no clothes on at all—for example, “There was Johnny, ________.” or, “They went in swimming ________.”
    W21 Soft shoes that people wear only inside the house:
    W22 What do you call a loose, full housedress that ties at the waist?
    -W23 When a collar or other clothing works itself up out of place, you might say, “It’s ________.”
    W24a What expressions are used around here to warn a woman slyly that her slip is showing?
    W24b Sayings to warn a man that his pants are torn or split:
    W24c Sayings to warn a man that his trouser-fly is open:
    W25 When a woman is cutting out a dress to sew, what do you call the little scraps of cloth left over?
    -W26 When a piece of clothing has been used until it gets thin and breaks, you’d say it was ________.
    W27 What do you call a three-cornered tear in a piece of clothing from catching it on something sharp?
    W28 When a woman is in a hurry and has to sew up a torn place quickly, she might say, “I’ll just ________.”
    W29 What expressions do you have around here for things that are sewn carelessly? “They’re ________.”
    W30 When a woman adds decorations to make something more attractive—for example, a hat, she might say, “It’s too plain—I think I’ll put on a few flowers to ________ it up.”
    -W31 What kinds of fancywork do women around here generally do? (Local specialties?)
    W32 What names do you have around here for a group of women that meet to sew together?
    W33 What do you call the jewelry that goes around a woman’s forearm?
    W34 Jewelry that a woman wears on her ears: (Gesture.)
    W35 A piece of jewelry that a woman wears fastened at the neck of her dress:
    W36 What do people say around here about a woman who uses a lot of cosmetics?
    W37 When a woman puts on her good clothes and tries to look her best, you say she’s ________.
    W38 When a man dresses himself up in his best clothes, you say he’s ________.
    W39 Joking ways of referring to a person’s best clothes:
    *W40 What do people say about a woman who overdresses or who spends too much on clothes? [Early QRs: . . a woman who dresses up a lot or who spends too much on clothes?]
    W41 What expressions do you have for someone whose clothes never look right or who always dresses carelessly?
    W42a What nicknames do you have around here for men’s sharp-pointed shoes?
    W42b And what nicknames for men’s square-toed shoes?
    W43 What joking words do you have for clothes in general?
    Parts of the Body
    X1a Names used around here for false hair, worn by men:
    X1b False hair worn by women:
    X2 When a woman divides her hair into three strands and twists them together, you say she is ________ (her hair).
    X3 When a woman puts her hair up on her head in a bunch, you call this a ________.
    X4a If you were speaking of somebody’s hair getting grey, you might say, “His ________ is/are getting grey.”
    X4b A person might say, “On Saturday I have to wash my hair/hairs.”
    X5 What names do you have around here for different kinds of men’s haircuts?
    X6 If a person’s lower jaw sticks out prominently, you say he’s ________.
    X7 Other names for the throat: “Some food got stuck in his ________.”
    X8 What general words do you have for the organs inside the body?
    X9 Joking or uncomplimentary words for a person’s mouth—for example, you might say, “I wish he’d shut his ________.”
    -X10a To tell a person to stop talking—politely:
    X10b To tell a person to stop talking—not very politely:
    X11 What do you call the flesh that the teeth are set in?
    X12 What do you call large front teeth that stick out of the mouth?
    X13a What joking names do you have around here for teeth?
    X13b Joking names for false teeth:
    X14 Joking words for the nose:
    X15 What names do you have for different kinds of noses, according to shape or size?
    X16 Sticky mucus that forms in the nose—children’s words for this:
    X17 Talking about smells: A damp cellar that had been shut up for some time would smell ________.
    X18 And talking about listening: When one person doesn’t quite hear what another person said, what does he say?
    X19a When a person’s hearing is not very good, you say he’s ________.
    X19b And if a person’s hearing is very bad, you say he’s ________.
    X20 What other words do you have for a black eye?
    X21a What words are used to describe people according to their eyes—for example, if they stick out?
    X21b If the eyes are very sharp or piercing:
    X21c If the eyes are very round:
    X22 To stare at something with your mouth open:
    X23 What joking words do you have around here for eyeglasses?
    X24 When a person opens and closes his eyes quickly, he ________.
    X25 To close your eyes part way—for example, when looking at the sun:
    X26a If a person’s eyes look in different directions, looking inward, he’s ________.
    X26b If a person’s eyes look in different directions, looking outward, he’s ________.
    -X27 A person whose eyesight is failing: “He’s getting ________.”
    X28 Joking words used around here for a person’s head:
    X29 Joking or uncomplimentary words for a person’s face:
    -X30 What do you call the back part of the neck?
    X31 Other words used around here for a woman’s breasts:
    X32 Joking or uncomplimentary words for the hands—you might say, “Those are mine. You keep your ________ (out of them).”
    X33 The place in the elbow that gives you a strange feeling if you hit it against something:
    X34 Other names and nicknames for the navel:
    X35 Joking words for the part of the body that you sit on—for example, “He slipped and came down hard on his ________.”
    -X36 Joking names for the knees:
    X37 What words do you have to describe people’s legs if they’re noticeably bent, or uneven, or not right?
    X38 Joking names for unusually big or clumsy feet:
    X39 A mark on the skin where somebody has sucked it hard and brought the blood to the surface:
    X40 What other ways do you have of saying, “I’m going to bed”?
    X41 When you’re going to sleep for a very short while, you might say, “I’m just going to ________.”
    X42 What other way do you have to say, “I stopped sleeping at six o’clock.”
    X43a If you sleep later than usual one day by accident, you’d say, “I ________.”
    X43b If you sleep later than usual one day on purpose, you’d say, “I ________.”
    -X44 To get somebody out of bed early in the morning: “I had to ________.”
    X45 What joking expressions do you have around here about snoring?
    X46 When a person’s getting sleepy and opens his mouth wide and takes a deep breath, that’s a ________.
    X47 What other ways do you have of saying, “I’m very tired, at the end of my strength”?
    X48a Expressions meaning that a person is not so young any more—for example, “She must be ________ sixty.”
    X48b Or if a person is not so young any more, you might say, “He’s ________.”
    X49 Expressions used about a person who is very thin:
    X50 Names or nicknames for a person who is very fat:
    X51 To lose weight because of sickness: “He was sick all winter and ________ (quite a bit).”
    X52 And you’d say that a person like that who had been sick was looking ________.
    X53a What do you call an oversize stomach?
    X53b An oversize stomach that results from drinking:
    X54 When a person gets a spell of going ‘hic’ (Make the sound!) he’s got the ________.
    -X55 The sound that gas makes when it comes up from the stomach after a meal:
    X55b Words for breaking wind from the bowels:
    X56a Other words for sweat:
    X56b Expressions about sweating very heavily:
    X57 A person with light-colored hair and skin, “He’s fair ________.”
    X58 When you are cold, and little points of skin begin to come on your arms and legs, you have ________.
    X59 What do you call the small infected pimples that form usually on the face?
    +X60 What do you call a lump that comes up on your head when you get a sharp blow or knock?
    Physical Actions
    Y1 What expressions are used around here for a person suddenly falling down: “He slipped on the steps and took quite a ________.”
    Y2 Other words for upsetting or disturbing somebody: “Losing all that money didn’t seem to ________ him a bit.”
    Y3 To say uncomplimentary things about somebody:
    Y4 Other words for a very uncomplimentary remark:
    Y5 Words meaning to urge somebody to do something he shouldn’t: “Johnny wouldn’t have tried that if the other boys hadn’t ________.”
    Y6 Words meaning to put pressure on somebody to do something he ought to have done but hasn’t: “He’s a whole week late. I’m going to ________.”
    *Y7 When one person never misses a chance to be mean to another or to annoy another: “I don’t know why she keeps ________ me all the time!” [Early QRs: When one person never misses a chance to be mean to another: . .]
    -Y8 To keep after a person so as to get him to do things: “He never gets a minute’s peace—she’s always ________.”
    Y9 Somebody who always follows along behind others: “His little brother is an awful ________.”
    Y10 To throw something—for example, “The dog came at him, so he picked up a stone and ________ it at him.”
    Y11 Other words for a very hard blow: “You should have seen Bill go down. Joe really hit him a ________.”
    Y12a A fight between two people, mostly with words:
    Y12b A real fight in which blows are struck:
    Y13 A fist fight with several people in it:
    Y14a To hit somebody hard with the fist:
    Y14b To hit somebody with the open hand:
    Y15 To beat somebody thoroughly: “John really ________ that fellow!”
    Y16 A thorough beating: “He gave the bully an awful ________.”
    Y17 When two people agree to stop fighting and not be enemies any more, you might say, “I hear they ________.”
    Y18 To leave in a hurry: “Before they find this out, we’d better ________!”
    Y19 To begin to go away from a place: “It’s about time for me to ________.”
    Y20 To run fast: “You should have seen him ________!”
    Y21 To move about slowly and without energy:
    Y22 To move around in a way to make people take notice of you: “Look at him ________.”
    Y23 Expressions meaning to move yourself or get yourself in motion: “I was so stiff I could hardly ________.”
    Y24 Expressions meaning to walk, to go on foot: “I can’t get a ride, so I’ll just have to ________.”
    Y25 To walk heavily, making a lot of noise: “He came ________ into the house.”
    Y26a To walk very quietly: “She came ________ to the baby’s bed.”
    Y26b To walk very quietly: “The children filled their pockets and ________ out the back way.”
    Y27 To go about aimlessly, with nothing to do: “He’s always ________ around the drugstore.”
    Y28 A person who loiters about with nothing to do:
    Y29a To ‘go out’ a great deal, not to stay at home much: “She’s always ________.”
    Y29b Or, about a man who doesn’t stay home much: “He’s always ________.”
    Y30a To take something up and move it from one place to another—for example, a paper sack of groceries:
    Y30b To take something heavy up and move it from one place to another—for example, a bushel of apples:
    Y31 If a child asked his father to carry him on his back, he might say, “Give me a ________.”
    Y32 To squeeze yourself into a small space: “If you’re going to fit in there you’ll have to ________.” (Gesture.)
    Y33 Other words for squeezing or crushing something—for example, your finger in a door: “I ________ my finger in the door.”
    Y34a When somebody moves on his hands and knees: “He was down in the bushes, ________ around.”
    Y34b What babies do before they walk:
    +Y35x To spoil something so that it can’t be used—for example, a new coffee pot: “My new coffee pot—it’s completely ________.”
    -Y35y To spoil something so that it can’t be used: “You’ve ________ my new hat.”
    Y36 To spill something over the sides of a container: “See if you can carry that water without ________ (it all over).”
    Y37 To make a place untidy or disorderly: “I wish they wouldn’t ________ the room so.” (Gesture.)
    Y38 Mixed together, confused: “The things in the drawer are all ________.”
    Y39 To get something sticky or smeared up: “The children have been eating candy and they’ve got their faces all ________.”
    Y40a Other words referring to sticky stuff: “I’ve got to wash my hands; they’re all ________.”
    Y40b Other words referring to sticky stuff: “I’ve got to wash my hands. They’re all covered with ________.”
    Y41a Expressions used around here to tell someone to light a lamp or lantern: “________ the lamp.”
    Y41b Expressions used around here to tell someone to light an electric light: “________ the light.”
    Y42 Expressions for putting out a lamp or light:
    Y43a Expressions meaning to light a fire: “________ the fire.”
    Y43b Expressions meaning to put out a fire:
    Y44 A very small, sharp piece of wood: “His finger is sore—he ran a ________ into it.”
    Y45 Talking of a liquid—to scatter in all directions: “When he opened the can, the beer ________ (all over the kitchen).”
    Y46a To get hurt with something sharp—for example a thorn: “He ________ a thorn into his hand.”
    Y46b To get hurt with something sharp, like a needle: “She ________ herself with a needle.”
    Y47 To hide something away for future use: “I know he’s got it ________ somewhere.”
    Y48 To look in every possible place for something you’ve mislaid—for example, a pair of gloves: “I’ve ________ (the house looking for them).”
    -Y49 A sudden pull on something: “If you want to get that string out, just ________ it.”
    Y50 To undertake or carry out a job: “That’s a big job for just one person to ________.”
    Y51 Other ways of saying ‘to avoid’ things or people—for example: “He’s not your kind—you’d better ________ him.”
    Y52 To move over—for example on a long bench: “We have to make room for one more. Can you ________ (a little)?”
    Family Relationships
    Z1 What words do people around here use for ‘father’ within the family?
    Z2 What words do people around here use for ‘mother’?
    Z3 What words do people around here use for ‘grandfather’?
    Z4 What words do people around here use for ‘grandmother’?
    Z5 Nicknames and affectionate words meaning ‘brother’:
    Z6 Nicknames and affectionate words meaning ‘sister’:
    Z7 Nicknames and affectionate words for any other relatives: (Open question)
    Z8 General word for your own immediate family group:
    Z9 General word for others related to you by blood:
    Z10 If a child looks very much like his father, you might say, “He ________ his father.”
    Z11a Words for a child whose parents were not married—serious words:
    Z11b Nicknames and joking words for a child of unwed parents:
    Z12 Nicknames and joking words meaning ‘a small child’: “He’s a healthy little ________.”
    Z13 If a mother has to leave her baby for a little while, she might ask a neighbor, “While I’m gone, will you ________ the baby for me?”
    Z14a To give a child its own way or pay too much attention to it: “Everyone ________ that child.”
    Z14b If a child expects to have its own way or have too much attention, you might say, “That child is ________.”
    Z16 A small child who is rough, misbehaves, and doesn’t obey, you’d call him a ________.
    *Z17 To take care of or bring up a child: “All her children were ________ (on the farm).” [Early QRs: To take care of a child while it’s growing: “All her children were well ________.”
    Courtship, Marriage, Childbearing
    AA1 When a man goes to see a girl often and seems to want to marry her, he’s ________ her.
    AA2 If a man is going to a dance and a girl is going with him, you might say, “John is going to ________ Mary to the dance.”
    AA3 Nicknames or affectionate names for a sweetheart:
    AA4a What words and expressions are used around here about a man who is very eager to get married? “He’s ________.”
    AA4b And what expressions about a woman who is very eager to get married? “She’s ________.”
    AA5 If a woman seems to be going after one certain man that she wants to marry: “She’s ________ him.”
    AA6a What do you call a man who is fond of being with women and tries to attract their attention—if he’s nice about it?
    AA6b What do you call a man who is fond of being with women and tries to attract their attention—if he’s rude or not respectful?
    AA7a What words do you have for a woman who is very fond of men and is always trying to know more—if she’s nice about it?
    AA7b What words do you have for a woman who is very fond of men and is always trying to know more—if she’s not respectable about it?
    AA8 When people make too much of a show of affection in a public place—for example, “There they were at the church supper ________ (with each other).”
    AA9 Other words used around here for a loud or vigorous kiss:
    AA10 A very special liking that a boy may have for a girl (or the other way round)—you’d say, “He ________ her.” or “She ________ him.”
    AA11 If a man asks a girl to marry him and she refuses, you’d say she ________.
    AA12 If a man loses interest in a girl and stops seeing her, you’d say he ________.
    AA13 When two people who have been ‘going steady’ or were engaged, stop going together, you might say, “I guess they ________.”
    -AA14a Names or nicknames for a woman who never married:
    -AA14b Names or nicknames for a man who never married:
    AA15a What joking ways do you have around here of saying that people got married? “They ________.”
    AA15b What joking ways do you have around here of saying that a man is getting married? “He ________.”
    AA15c What joking ways do you have around here of saying that a woman is getting married? “She ________.”
    -AA16 What kinds of parties or celebrations do you have around here before a wedding?
    AA17 What other people beside the bride and groom do you usually have in a wedding party around here? (Open question)
    AA18 What do you call a noisy neighborhood celebration after a wedding, where the married couple is expected to give a treat?
    AA19 Words or expressions about a man and woman who are not married but live together as if they were:
    AA20 A marriage that takes place because a baby is on the way:
    AA21 What joking expressions do you have about a wife who gives the orders and a husband who takes them from her?
    AA22 Joking names that a man may use to refer to his wife: “I have to go down and pick up my ________.”
    AA23 Joking names that a woman may use to refer to her husband: “It’s time to go and get supper for my ________.”
    AA24 A man whose wife is dead:
    AA25 A woman whose husband is dead:
    AA26 A divorced woman:
    AA27 What other names or expressions are used for a woman’s menstruation?
    AA28 What joking or sly expressions do women use to say that another is going to have a baby? “She(‘s) ________.”
    AA29 What do you call the blue, swollen veins that a woman often gets on her legs while expecting a baby?
    AA30 An older woman who comes in (or used to come in) to help when a baby is going to be born:
    Health and Disease
    BB1 When a person has been injured so that when he walks he steps more heavily on one foot than the other: “He ________.”
    BB2 If a person is careful not to put much weight on his injured leg, you might say he was ________ that leg.
    *BB3a What do you call a pain that strikes you suddenly in the neck? [Early QRs: . . a sudden muscular pain that comes in the neck?]
    BB3b A sudden pain that strikes you in the back:
    BB3c A sudden pain that comes in the side: (Gesture.)
    BB4 Other words for a pain—for example, in the arm: “He’s had a ________ in his arm for a week.”
    BB5 A general feeling of discomfort or illness that isn’t any one place in particular:
    BB6 A sudden feeling of weakness, when sometimes the person loses consciousness:
    BB7 A feeling that lasts for a short while, with difficult breathing and heart beating fast:
    BB8 When a person’s joints and muscles ache and sometimes swell up, especially in damp weather, he may have ________.
    BB9 A sickness in which you have a severe cough and difficult breathing—it often starts with a cold, and lasts a week or two:
    BB10 What other names or nicknames are used, or used to be used, around here for tuberculosis?
    BB11 Speaking of a deep cough that you can’t seem to get rid of: “Listen to him ________.”
    BB12 The kind of cough that comes with bronchitis: “He has a ________ cough.”
    BB13 Other words used around here for chills and fever:
    BB14 To suddenly become unconscious and fall: “Just as she came to the door she ________.”
    BB15 Somebody who is unconscious from a hard blow: “He’s been ________ for ten minutes.”
    BB16a If something a person ate didn’t agree with him, he might be sick ________ his stomach. (Gesture.)
    BB16b If something a person ate didn’t agree with him, he might just feel a bit ________.
    BB17 Other words or expressions used around here for vomiting:
    BB18 To vomit a great deal at once:
    BB19 Joking names for looseness of the bowels:
    BB20 Joking names or expressions for overactive kidneys:
    BB21 Other words for being constipated:
    BB22 What home remedies do you have around here for constipation? (Open question)
    BB23 The disease where the skin becomes a yellowish color:
    BB24 Other names for a rash that comes out suddenly—from hives or something else: “He’s got some kind of ________ all over his chest.”
    BB25 What are some common skin diseases around here? (Open question)
    -BB26 About a disease that spreads easily from one person to another: “Scarlet fever is very ________.”
    BB27 When somebody pretends to be sick (often to get out of doing something) you’d say he’s ________.
    BB28 Joking names that people make up for imaginary diseases: “He must have the ________.”
    *BB29 What do you call the red flesh that sometimes grows in a wound and keeps it from healing right? [Early QRs: . . grows in a wound when it is healing?]
    BB30 What do you call a hard, painful swelling (often on a finger) that seems to come from deep under the skin?
    -BB31 When a swelling begins to get less, you say it’s ________.
    BB32 If somebody had a swelling—for example, in his whole face—you might say, “Last week his face was all ________.”
    BB33a What do you call a swelling under the skin, bigger than a pimple, that comes to a head?
    BB33b What do you call a swelling under the skin—if it is very big or serious?
    -BB34a What remedies do you use to bring a boil to a head?
    -BB34b What is a poultice made with?
    BB35 The yellowish stuff that comes out of a boil when the head breaks:
    BB36 When there’s an open sore and this yellowish stuff is coming out of it, you say it’s ________.
    BB37 When yellowish stuff comes out of a person’s ear, he has a ________.
    BB38 When a person doesn’t look healthy, or looks as if he hadn’t been well for some time, you’d say, “He looks ________.”
    BB39 On a day when you don’t feel just right, though not actually sick, you might say, “I’ll be all right tomorrow—I’m just feeling ________ today.”
    BB40 If you’re inquiring about somebody acting strangely: “All of a sudden he got up and left. What do you suppose ________ him?”
    BB41 Not seriously ill, but sick enough to be in bed: “He’s been ________ for a week.”
    BB42 If a person is very sick you say he’s ________.
    BB43 A person who has to stay in bed all the time: “For two years now he’s been ________.”
    BB44 Words used around here about a person just starting some sickness—for example, pneumonia: “He ________ pneumonia.”
    BB45 The time that an illness lasts—for example, stomach trouble: “He’s been having a long ________ of stomach trouble.”
    BB46 Words and expressions about someone who has been very sick but now is getting better: “He’s ________.”
    BB47 Feeling in the best of health and spirits: “I’m feeling ________!”
    BB48 When a person has too much sugar in his blood and may have to take insulin for it, you’d say he has ________.
    BB49 What other kinds of diseases are common around here, or used to be common? (Open question)
    BB50a What are the favorite remedies around here for a cough? (Open question)
    BB50b Remedies for chest colds: (Open question)
    BB50c Remedies for infections: (Open question)
    BB50d Favorite spring tonics around here: (Open question)
    BB51a What cures for corns or warts do you have around here? (Open question)
    BB51b Are there any ‘magical’ cures for corns or warts, like rubbing them with something special, or in a special way?
    BB52 What joking words do you have around here for a dentist?
    BB53a What joking names do you have for a doctor?
    BB53b What do you call a doctor who is not very capable or doesn’t have a very good reputation?
    BB54 When a sick person is past hope of recovery, you’d say he’s (a) ________.
    -BB55 What other expressions are used around here to say that a person died?—serious expressions:
    BB56 Joking expressions for dying: “He ________.”
    BB57 If someone committed suicide, you’d say he ________.
    -BB58 The person who prepares a dead body for burial:
    -BB59 The box that a body is put into for burial:
    BB60 When friends and relatives gather together at the place where the body is, usually the night before the funeral, you call that:
    BB61a Other words used around here for a cemetery:
    BB61b Any joking names for a cemetery?
    Religion and Beliefs
    CC1 On a church building, what do you call the part that sticks up high?
    CC2 What are the predominant religious denominations around here?
    CC3 Are there any religions that have come in recently around here or are a bit different from the common ones?
    CC4 What nicknames do you have around here for various religions or religious groups?
    CC5 Names for seats in a church, especially near the front:
    CC6 The place where the preacher stands to give the sermon:
    CC7 Words for a person who goes to church very seldom or not at all:
    CC8 Other names for the devil:
    CC9 Other words or expressions for hell: “That man is headed straight for ________.”
    CC10 What words do you have around here for an unprofessional, part-time lay preacher?
    CC11 When somebody has had a lot of good luck, you say he ________.
    CC12a Expressions used about bad luck, or about somebody who has had a lot of it: “Poor Joe. He’s really been having ________.”
    CC12b Or if a person has a lot of bad luck you might say, “He’s been ________.”
    CC13a What names do you have around here for a forked stick that’s used to show where there’s water underground? (What kind of wood?)
    CC13b And what do you call the person who knows how to use a forked stick to find water?
    CC14 Words or expressions used here, where one person supposedly casts a spell over another:
    CC15 When people say there are ghosts in a certain place, or when it gives you a creepy feeling to go near it: “They say that the old house is ________.”
    CC16 A small light that seems to dance or flicker over a marsh or swamp at night:
    CC17 Imaginary animals or monsters that people around here tell tales about—especially to tease greenhorns: (What are they like? What do they do?)
    Tobacco, Liquor
    DD1 What different forms does chewing tobacco come in around here?
    DD2 The portion or quantity of tobacco chewed at one time: “He’s always got a big ________ in his cheek.”
    DD3a What do you call a person who uses snuff?
    DD3b How do people take snuff around here?
    DD4 Moisture in the mouth, colored brown by snuff or chewing tobacco:
    DD5 A metal or earthenware receptacle on the floor that tobacco-chewers use, or used to use:
    DD6a Other names or nicknames for cigars:
    DD6b Nicknames for cigarettes:
    -DD6c Nicknames for a pipe:
    DD7 Different names for cigars around here according to size, shape, or the way they’re made:
    DD8 The part left over when a cigar or cigarette is smoked:
    DD9a What expressions are used about a person who smokes a great deal? “He’s a ________.”
    DD9b Of a person who smokes a great deal you might say, “He smokes like a ________.”
    DD10 When somebody gives up smoking: “He isn’t smoking any more—a month ago he ________.”
    DD11 When somebody gives up drinking: “I hear he ________.”
    DD12 What words or expressions do you have around here for a person who drinks steadily or a great deal?
    DD13 When a drinker is just beginning to show the effects of the liquor, you say he’s ________.
    DD14 When a person is partly drunk, “He’s ________.”
    DD15 A person who is thoroughly drunk:
    DD16 To have a drinking bout and get drunk is to go on a ________.
    DD17 To drink a great deal, or too fast: “He doesn’t just drink, he ________.”
    DD18 A drink of liquor, or the amount of liquor taken in one swallow: “He took a good ________.”
    -DD19 A little drink: “I’ll just take ________.”
    -DD20 A big drink: “He always takes ________.”
    DD21a General words used around here for any kind of liquor:
    DD21b General words used around here for bad liquor:
    DD21c Nicknames for whiskey, especially illegally made whiskey:
    DD22 Other expressions meaning delirium tremens:
    -DD23 Sickness that comes the day after a drinking bout:
    DD24 Other diseases that come from continual drinking:
    DD25 What nicknames are used around here for beer?
    -DD26a Other words for a beer mug:
    -DD26b Other words for a beer glass:
    DD27 What nicknames are used around here for wine?
    -DD28a Names and nicknames for kinds of liquor other than beer, wine, or whiskey:
    DD28b What fermented drinks are made at home around here?
    -DD29 Common containers for liquor (now and in the past):
    DD30 Joking names for a place where liquor is (or was) sold and consumed illegally:
    -DD31 Joking names for homemade hard liquor:
    DD32 A person who sells illegal liquor is called a ________.
    DD33a A person who drinks no liquor at all:
    DD33b A person who is actively against drinking:
    DD34 A party at which there is considerable drinking:
    DD35 What are the favorite card games that people play around here? (Open question)
    -DD36 What expressions do you have around here that come from card games—for example, ‘an ace up your sleeve’?
    DD37 Other table games played a lot by adults around here: (Open question)
    Children’s Games
    EE1 What games do children play around here, in which they form a ring, and either sing or recite a rhyme?
    EE2 Games that have one extra player—when a signal is given, the players change places, and the extra one tries to get a place:
    EE3 Games in which you hide an object and then look for it:
    EE4 Games in which one player’s eyes are bandaged and he has to catch the others and guess who they are:
    EE5 Games where you try to make a jackknife stick in the ground:
    EE6a Names for different kinds of marbles—the big one that’s used to knock others out of the ring:
    EE6b Small marbles or marbles in general:
    EE6c Cheap marbles:
    EE6d Special marbles:
    EE7 What kinds of marble games are played or used to be played around here? (Open question)
    EE8 The line toward which the players roll their marbles before beginning a game, to determine the order of shooting:
    EE9a The children’s trick of turning over rapidly straight forward close to the ground: (Gesture.)
    EE9b If children jump forward, land on the hands, and turn over: (Gesture.)
    EE9c What if children spread their arms and turn over sideways? (Gesture.)
    EE10 A game in which a short stick lying on the ground is flipped into the air and then hit with a longer stick, that’s ________.
    EE11 Bat-and-ball games for just a few players (when there aren’t enough for a regular game):
    EE12 Games in which one captain hides his team and the other team tries to find it:
    EE13a Games in which every player hides except one, and that one must try to find the others:
    EE13b In games in which all the others hide, the one who must try to find them, he’s ________.
    EE14 What do you call the place where the player who is ‘it’ has to wait and count while the others hide?
    EE15 When he has caught the first of those that were hiding what does the player who is ‘it’ call out to the others?
    EE16 Hiding games that start with a special, elaborate method of sending the players out to hide:
    EE17 In a game of tag, if a player wants to rest, what does he call out so that he can’t be tagged?
    EE18 Games in which the players set up a stone, a tin can, or something similar, and then try to knock it down:
    EE19 The game in which children mark a ‘court’ on the ground or sidewalk, throw a flat stone in one section, then go on one foot and try to kick it or carry it out:
    EE20 When two boys are fighting, and the one who is losing wants to stop, he calls out, “________.”
    -EE21a When somebody goes into a fight very actively: “You should have seen Jack ________ Bob.”
    EE21b When boys were fighting very actively, you might say, “For a while those fellows really ________.”
    EE22 What do you call the game in which they throw a ball over a building (a house or a barn) to a player on the other side?
    EE23a In the game of andy-over (or other word) what do you call out when you throw the ball?
    EE23b In the game of andy-over (or other word) if you fail to get the ball over the building and it rolls back, what do you call out?
    EE24a When there’s snow, children go down the hill on a ________.
    EE24b When children go down hill on a sled (or other word) they say they’re ________.
    EE25 When a child picks up his sled (or hand-sleigh/scoot), runs with it, and then throws himself down on it, that’s a ________.
    EE26 What games do children play in the snow around here? (Open question)
    EE27 Games played on the ice: (Open question)
    EE28 Games played in the water: (Open question)
    EE29 When swimmers are diving and one comes down flat onto the water, that’s a ________.
    EE30 Throwing a flat stone over the surface of water so that it jumps several times:
    EE31 Playground equipment with a long board for two children to sit on and go up and down in turn:
    EE32 A homemade merry-go-round:
    EE33 Other outdoor games not yet mentioned that children play now, or that were played in your childhood: (Open question)
    EE34 Other words used around here meaning a child’s toy:
    EE35 Long wooden poles with a footpiece that children walk around on to make them tall:
    EE36 To climb the trunk of a tree by holding on with your legs while you pull yourself up with your hands:
    EE37 The game where you try to throw metal rings or something similar over a stake in the ground:
    EE38a A game played with pencil and paper where the players try to get three X’s or three O’s in a row:
    EE38b If the game of tick-tack-toe (or other word) comes out so that neither X nor O wins, you call that ________.
    EE39 Other games played on paper by two people: (Open question)
    EE40 What table games are played around here, using dice? (Open question)
    EE41 A hobgoblin that is used to threaten children and make them behave:
    Entertainments and Celebrations
    FF1 Do you have around here a kind of group meeting called a ‘social’ or ‘sociable’? What kinds are there? (What goes on?)
    FF2 What kinds of parties do people favor around here? (Open question)
    FF3 Do people give ‘showers’ or ‘gift parties’ around here? What kinds?
    FF4 Names and joking names for different kinds of dancing parties:
    FF5a Names for different steps and figures in dancing—in past years:
    FF5b More recent dance steps:
    FF6 Expressions used around here meaning ‘to be asked to go to a party’: “Did you get a ________ to the party?”
    FF7 A small musical instrument that you blow on, and move from side to side in your mouth:
    FF8 Another small instrument that you hold between the teeth and pluck on:
    FF9 A Christmas gathering, at church or at someone’s home, where there are songs and presents: “Are you going to the ________?”
    FF10 What do people around here say to greet each other on Christmas morning?
    FF11 What do you call the night of December 31st?
    FF12a What do you call the first day of May around here?
    FF12b What do you call the night of May first? (Do children give May baskets? Is there a Maypole? When?)
    -FF13 What other words do you have around here to mean ‘firecrackers’?
    FF14 What different kinds of firecrackers do you have around here?
    FF15 When a firecracker doesn’t go off, and you break it in the middle and light the powder, you call it a ________.
    *FF16 What other local contests or celebrations do you have? What goes on? (Open question) [Early QRs: What other local celebrations or holidays do you have?]
    FF17 Words meaning that people had a very good or enjoyable time: “We all had a ________ last night.”
    FF18 Joking words or expressions about a noisy or boisterous celebration or party: “They certainly ________ last night.”
    FF19 Words used about a very dull or unenjoyable time: “The party was ________.”
    -FF20 Short humorous stories that people tell to make others laugh: “He’s always telling ________.”
    FF21a A joke that is so old it doesn’t seem funny any more: “His jokes are all ________.”
    FF21b Or about old jokes people say: “The first time I heard that one I ________.”
    FF22a Names for clubs and societies around here—for women: (Open question)
    FF22b Names for clubs and societies around here—for men: (Open question)
    FF23 What joking names do people have for any of these clubs or lodges?
    FF24 The place or building where people go to see motion pictures:
    FF25 Joking names for motion pictures:
    FF26 Words meaning a large group of people at a public gathering—for example, an auction: “There was quite a ________ at the auction.”
    FF27 Joking names and nicknames for television:
    +FF28 What other kinds of fireworks do you have? (Open question) [This Qu. was included in some early QRs.]
    Emotional States and Attitudes
    -GG1a Words meaning ‘very fond of’ something—for example, card playing: “People here are ________ about playing cards.”
    -GG1b Or very fond of something to eat: “He ________ ice cream.”
    GG2 Expressions meaning ‘confused, mixed up’: “So many things were going on at the same time that he got completely ________.”
    GG3 To tease: “See those big boys trying to ________ (that little one).”
    GG4 Stirred up, angry: “When he saw them coming he got ________.”
    GG5 When someone does something unexpectedly bold or forward, you might say: “Well, she certainly has a lot of ________.”
    *GG6 Talking about a person’s feelings being hurt: “When she said she couldn’t go with him, he was quite ________.” [Early QRs: Words meaning ‘offended’: “When she said she wouldn’t go with him, he was quite ________.”]
    GG7 Words meaning annoyed or upset: “Though we were only ten minutes late, she was all ________.”
    GG8 When a person is very easily offended: “Be careful what you say to him, he’s ________.”
    GG9 To suddenly embarrass somebody and throw him off balance: “When they told him what she had said about him, it certainly did ________ him.”
    -GG10 To be very eager to do something: “He certainly seems ________ to marry that girl.”
    GG11 To be quite anxious about something—for example, waiting for a letter: “The letter hasn’t come and he’s ________.”
    GG12 To have an inner feeling that something is about to happen: “There she comes now, I ________ she would.”
    GG13a When something keeps bothering a person and makes him nervous, he may say, “It ________ me.”
    GG13b When something keeps bothering a person and makes him nervous, he may say: “It gives me the ________.”
    *GG14 Names and nicknames for someone who fusses or worries a lot, especially about little things: [Early QRs: . . who worries a lot, . . :]
    GG15 Talking about a person who became over-excited and lost control, “At that point he really ________.”
    GG16 Words for finding fault, or complaining: “You just can’t please him—he’s always ________.”
    *GG17 Other words for longing (to see somebody who has been away): “She had been so lonely—she was really ________ (to see him).” [Early QRs: To keep wishing for something very much: “She had been so lonely—she was really ________ (to see him).”]
    GG18 Other words meaning ‘obstinate’: “Why does he have to be so ________.”
    GG19a When you can see from the way a person acts that he’s feeling important or independent: “He surely is ________ these days.”
    GG19b When you can see from the way a person acts that he’s feeling important or independent: “He seems to think he’s ________.”
    GG20 Words or expressions meaning ‘very much surprised’: “When those two got married, I was certainly ________.”
    GG21a If you don’t care what a person does, you might tell him, “You can go ahead and do it ________.”
    GG21b If you don’t care what a person does, you might say, “Go ahead—I don’t give a ________.”
    GG22a When you have come to the end of your patience, you might say, “Well that’s the ________.”
    GG22b When you have come to the end of your patience, you might say, “Well, that certainly ________.”
    *GG23a If you speak sharply to somebody to make him be patient, you say, “Now just keep your ________.” [Early QRs: . . “Keep ________.”]
    GG23b If you speak sharply to somebody to make him be patient, you might say, “Hold ________!”
    GG23c Any other expressions (to tell someone to be patient):
    GG24 Other words meaning to frighten: “Now don’t let those fellows ________ you.”
    GG25 To become frightened: “The children were ________ he was going to hurt them.”
    GG26 A feeling of weakness from fear: “When she saw the dog coming at her she got ________.”
    GG27a To get somebody out of an unhappy mood, you might say to him, “Everything’s going to be all right, so ________.”
    GG27b To get somebody out of an unhappy mood, you might say to him, “Don’t ________.”
    GG28 To be very pleased or happy about something: “She managed to come home for Christmas, and everybody was ________ to see her.”
    GG29 To be in a good or pleasant mood: “This morning he seems to be feeling ________.”
    GG30 To suddenly break out laughing: “When he told her that, she just ________.”
    GG31 To laugh very hard: “I thought I’d ________.”
    GG32a To habitually play tricks or jokes on people: “He’s always ________.”
    GG32b To habitually play tricks or jokes on people: “He’s an awful ________.”
    -GG33a To feel very sad and upset about something: “When he got the news he was ________.”
    -GG33b To feel very sad and upset about something: “I never saw a woman ________ so.”
    GG34a To feel depressed or in a gloomy mood: “He has the ________ today.”
    GG34b To feel depressed or in a gloomy mood: “She’s feeling ________ today.”
    GG35a To sulk or pout: “It won’t do any good to ________ about it.”
    GG35b Of a person who acts annoyed or disappointed you might say, “Because she couldn’t go, she’s been ________ all day.”
    GG36a The kind of person who is always poking into other people’s affairs: “She’s an awful ________.”
    GG36b The kind of person who is always poking into other people’s affairs: “She’s the ________ person I know!”
    GG37 Somebody who is very brave or courageous: “He’s got plenty of ________.”
    *GG38 Somebody who is usually mean and bad tempered: “He’s an awful ________.” [Early QRs: Somebody who is usually in a bad temper: . .]
    GG39 Somebody who seems to be looking for reasons to be angry: “He’s a ________.”
    GG40 Words or expressions meaning violently angry:
    GG41 To lose patience easily: “You never did see such a ________ person.”
    GG42 A reckless person, one who takes foolish chances:
    Types and Attitudes of People
    HH1 Names and nicknames for a rustic or countrified person:
    HH2 Names and nicknames for a citified person:
    HH3 A dull and stupid person:
    HH4 Someone who has odd or peculiar ideas or notions:
    HH5 Someone who is queer but harmless:
    HH6 Someone who is out of his mind:
    HH7a Someone who talks too much, or too loud: “He’s an awful ________.”
    HH7b Someone who talks too much, or too loud: “He’s always ________.”
    HH8 A person who likes to brag:
    HH9 A very silly or light-headed person:
    HH10 A very timid or cowardly person: “He’s ________.”
    HH11a Someone who is too particular or fussy—if it’s a man:
    HH11b Someone who is too particular or fussy—if it’s a woman:
    HH12 A person who is always finding fault about unimportant things:
    HH13 Expressions meaning that a person is not very alert or not aware of things: “He’s certainly ________.”
    HH14 Ways of teasing a beginner or inexperienced person—for example, by sending him for a ‘left-handed monkey wrench’: “Go get me ________.”
    HH15 A very inexperienced person, one who is just learning how to do a new thing:
    HH16 Uncomplimentary words with no definite meaning—just used when you want to show that you don’t think much of a person: “Don’t invite him. He’s a ________.”
    HH17 A person who tries to appear important, or who tries to lay down the law in his community: “He’d like to be the ________ around here.”
    HH18 Very insignificant or low-grade people:
    HH19 Other words or nicknames for a tramp:
    HH20a An idle, worthless person: “He’s a ________.”
    HH20b Of an idle, worthless person you might say, “He doesn’t amount to ________.”
    HH20c Of an idle, worthless person you might say, “He isn’t worth ________.”
    HH21 A very awkward, clumsy person:
    -HH22a A mean or disagreeable person:
    HH22b Talking about a very mean person, you might say, “He’s meaner than ________.”
    HH22c Talking about a very mean person, you might say, “He’s mean enough to ________.”
    -HH23 A person who gets along well with everybody: “Now there’s a ________.”
    HH24 Somebody who doesn’t talk very much, who keeps his thoughts to himself:
    HH25 One who never has anything to say: “What’s the matter with him?” “________?”
    HH26 A person who is always ready to stir up trouble:
    HH27a A very able and energetic person who gets things done:
    HH27b Of a very able and energetic person who gets things done you might say, “He’s got lots of ________.”
    HH28 Names and nicknames around here for people of foreign background: (Get only those appropriate in your area.)
    HH29a Names around here for people of mixed blood—part Indian:
    HH29b Names for people of mixed blood—part Negro:
    HH30 Things that are nicknamed for different nationalities—for example, a ‘Dutch treat’: (Open question)
    HH31 Somebody who is not from your community, and doesn’t belong:
    -HH32 Other words meaning ‘a person’—for example, “In a case like that, what’s ________ to do?”
    -HH33 Other words meaning ‘people’—for example, “When they hear that, what are ________ going to say?”
    *HH34 General words around here for a woman, not necessarily uncomplimentary: [Early QRs: Disrespectful words around here for a woman:]
    HH35 A woman who puts on a lot of airs: “She’s too ________ for me.”
    HH36 A careless, slovenly woman: “She’s just an old ________.”
    HH37 An immoral woman:
    HH38 A womanish man:
    HH39 A homosexual man:
    HH40 Uncomplimentary words for an old man:
    -HH41 Someone who has a very high opinion of himself:
    -HH42 Names and nicknames for a common laborer:
    HH43a The top person in charge of a group of workmen, the ________.
    HH43b The assistant to the top person in charge of a group of workmen is called the ________.
    HH44 Joking or uncomplimentary names for lawyers:
    Relationships among People
    II1 Words meaning a close friend (or other ways of saying “He’s my friend.”): “He’s my ________.”
    II2a When two people begin to be friendly: “He has just recently ________ with John.”
    II2b When two people have become friendly you might say, “It’s been quite a while that Mary and Jane have been ________.”
    II3 Expressions to say that people are very friendly toward each other: “They’re ________.”
    II4 When people around here ask to be introduced to someone—for example: “I’d like to ________ John Smith.”
    II5a When you don’t want to have anything to do with a certain person because you don’t like him, you might say, “I’d certainly like to get ________ of him.”
    II5b When you don’t want to have anything to do with a certain person because you don’t like him, you might say, “I’d certainly like to give him the ________.”
    II6 If you meet somebody who used to be a friend, and he pretends not to know you: “When I met him on the street he ________.”
    II7 Somebody who doesn’t seem to ‘fit in’ or to get along very well, you might say about him, “He’s kind of a ________.”
    II8 When one person wants to share or divide something with another person, he might say, “Let’s ________ (on that).”
    II9 If several people have to contribute in order to pay for something, you say, “Let’s all ________.”
    II10a Asking directions of somebody on the street when you don’t know his name—what you’d say to a boy: “Say, ________, where’s the post office?”
    II10b Asking directions of somebody on the street when you don’t know his name—what you’d say to a man: “Say, ________, how far is it to the next town?”
    II11a If two people don’t get along well together, you’d say, “They don’t ________.”
    II11b If two people can’t bear each other at all, you’d say, “Those two are ________.”
    II12 Talking about meeting somebody on the street and speaking only a few words with him: “We just ________.”
    -II13 When you are friendly with people who live near you, and you do little things for each other, you might say, “We’ve always ________ with them.”
    II14 To pay a short visit: “Last night our new neighbors ________.”
    II15 When somebody is passing by and you want him or her to stop and talk a while, you might say, “________.”
    -II16 When a visitor stays too long or comes too often: “He ________.”
    II17 If you happen to meet someone that you haven’t seen for a while: “Guess who I ________ this morning.”
    II18 Someone who joins himself on to you and your group without being asked and won’t leave:
    II19 When you think somebody has been put ahead of you or has been given something you deserved, you might say, “I’d rather quit than ________.”
    II20a A person who tries too hard to gain somebody else’s favor: “He’s an awful ________.”
    II20b A person who tries too hard to gain somebody else’s favor: “He’s always trying to ________ the boss.”
    II21 When somebody behaves unpleasantly or without manners: “The way he behaves, you’d think he was ________.”
    II22 Expressions to tell somebody to keep to himself and mind his own business:
    II23 Joking names for the people who are, or think they are, the best society of a community: The ________.
    II24 Names or nicknames for the part of a town where the well-off people live:
    II25 Names or nicknames for the part of a town where the poorer people, special groups, or foreign groups live:
    II26 Joking ways of saying that you would not know who somebody is: “I wouldn’t know him from ________.”
    II27 If somebody gives you a very sharp scolding, you might say, “I certainly got a ________ for that.”
    II28 An unexplainable dislike that you feel from the first moment you meet a person: “I took a ________ to him.”
    II29a An unexplainable dislike that you feel from the first moment you meet a person: “I don’t know why, but I just can’t ________ him.”
    II29b Or you might try to explain the unpleasant effect that person has on you: “He just ________.”
    -II30 What other ways do you have of saying that you are firmly opposed to someone? “I’m ________ him.”
    II31 In an argument between two people, when one of them claims too much and the other shows him up: “He saw that he was wrong, so he started to ________.”
    II32 To manage some way to shift the responsibility: “He said it wasn’t his fault and tried to ________.”
    II33 To get an advantage over somebody by tricky means: “I don’t trust him, he’s always trying to ________.”
    II34 If you think somebody is trying to use you to his advantage: “I’m not going to be his ________.”
    II35 A person who is disliked because he seems to think he knows everything:
    II36a Somebody who talks back or gives rude answers: “Did you ever see such a ________?”
    II36b Of somebody who talks back or gives rude answers you might say, “She certainly is ________!”
    -II37 Somebody who is very courteous or polite: “He’s such a ________.”
    -II38 To be indebted to somebody for a favor or kindness (not money): “I’m very much ________ to him.”
    II39 What other ways do you have of saying ‘Thank you’?
    Schoolgoing, Mental Actions
    JJ1a Other words for a schoolteacher—a woman:
    JJ1b Other words for a schoolteacher—a man:
    JJ2a A child going to school, one in the lower grades:
    JJ2b A person who attends high school:
    JJ3a When a school child makes a special effort to ‘get in good’ with the teacher in hopes of getting a better grade: “He’s trying to ________ again.”
    JJ3b When a school child makes a special effort to ‘get in good’ with the teacher in hopes of getting a better grade: “She’s an awful ________.”
    JJ4 A child who is always telling on other children:
    JJ5 A time-out of about 10 or 15 minutes in the middle of the morning or afternoon: (Note stress.)
    JJ6 To stay away from school without an excuse:
    JJ7 Words or expressions for cheating in school examinations:
    JJ8 To study very hard the last minute before an exam:
    JJ9 Somebody who studies too hard or all the time:
    JJ10a Different kinds of pens and pencils:
    JJ10b Parts of an ink pen:
    JJ11 Joking names for handwriting that’s hard to read: “I can’t make anything out of his ________.”
    JJ12 Little flourishes that some people put on their handwriting or signature to make it look fancy:
    JJ13 What joking words do you have for a name signed to a paper? “I’ll put my ________ on that.”
    JJ14 To write a person’s name and where he lives on a letter you are sending to him: “I’ll mail this letter as soon as I ________ it.”
    JJ15a Sayings about a person who seems to you very stupid: “He hasn’t sense enough to ________.”
    JJ15b Sayings about a person who seems to you very stupid: “He doesn’t know ________.”
    JJ16 When there was something you didn’t understand, then suddenly you do understand it, you might say, “Oh, now I ________.”
    JJ17 When you know that somebody has been trying to deceive you, you might say, “He’s not fooling me one bit, I’m ________ (him).”
    JJ18 If you want to have time to think about something before you make a decision: “Give me till tomorrow, I’d like to ________.”
    JJ19 If somebody has dishonest intentions, or is up to no good, you might say, “I think he’s got ________.”
    JJ20 If you felt very sure about something, and wanted to show it: “I’m so sure, I’d ________ it.”
    JJ21 If you want to be very positive: Somebody asks you “Are you really going to do that?” And you answer, “You ________.”
    JJ22 To express your opinion—for example, at a public meeting: “I went to the meeting, and ________.”
    JJ23 To refuse to give in or yield: “He tried to scare me off but I ________ .”
    JJ24 To refuse firmly: “He wanted to get some more money, but this time I ________.”
    JJ25 To show somebody that you’re the boss: “He thought he could take the place over, but I made him ________.”
    JJ26 If somebody has been doing poor work or not enough, the boss might say, “If he wants to keep his job he’d better ________.”
    JJ27 To give somebody a hint for his own good: “He had no idea that she was up to anything, but I put ________.”
    JJ28 If you are afraid you may forget something, you may tell another person, “Before I leave tonight, be sure and ________ (me to do it).”
    JJ29 Talking of something that may have happened in the past: “Have you met him before?” “Not that I ________.”
    JJ30a Other words or expressions for forgetting something: “I ________.”
    JJ30b Other expressions for forgetting: “It ________.”
    JJ31a What you’d say to a bus driver: “Please stop at the next corner—I want ________.”
    JJ31b Or you might say, “The dog is scratching at the door, he wants ________.”
    JJ32 If you have to make up your mind between two things—for example, a dog and a cat, you might say, “I’d ________ (have a dog).”
    JJ33 When you can’t choose, but have to take what you’re given: “I’ll take a cat, but if I had my ________ I’d take a dog.”
    JJ34 When you decide it would be to your advantage to do something, you might say, “Yes, I ________ I’ll be better off that way.”
    *JJ35a When you have just about reached the point of telling somebody what you think of him: “By gosh, I have a ________ (to tell him what I think of him).” [Early QRs: When you are considering saying something, though you haven’t done so yet: “I have a ________ to tell him what I think of him.”]
    JJ35b Other expressions you might use when you have lost patience and are just about ready to tell somebody what you think of him:
    *JJ36 To work out a plan, especially a secret plan: “Mary knows more about that, you and she can ________ together.” [Early QRs: To make plans, especially secret plans: “She knows more about that, you’ll have to ________ with her.”]
    -JJ37 When you have reason to believe that someone is not honest: “I’m not sure, but I ________ that man is a thief.”
    -JJ38 When somebody agreed to do something, then changed his mind, you might say, “At the last minute he ________.”
    -JJ39 When somebody is being accused who doesn’t deserve it, you might say, “He couldn’t help it, so don’t ________ him.”
    JJ40 When you admit that you did something wrong and are willing to take the consequences, you might say: “It was my fault and I’m willing to ________.”
    JJ41 An embarrassing mistake: “Last night she made an awful ________.”
    JJ42 To make an error in judgment and get something quite wrong: “He usually handles things well, but this time he certainly ________.”
    JJ43 To give away a secret or tell a piece of news too soon: “He wasn’t supposed to know. Somebody must have ________.”
    JJ44 Expressions about someone who can be trusted to keep a secret: “Don’t worry about him, he’ll ________.”
    JJ45 When someone avoids giving a definite answer: “We tried to pin him down, but he just kept ________.”
    JJ46 Other ways of saying to pretend: “Let’s ________ we don’t know a thing about it.”
    -JJ47 If there is something you can’t do—for example, for fear of the consequences, you might say, “Doctor’s orders—I ________ eat any.”
    Manner of Action or Being
    KK1a Other words meaning very good—for example, food: “That pie was ________.”
    KK1b Words meaning ‘in the very best condition’: “His farm is ________.”
    -KK2 Other words meaning ‘very likeable or popular’: “He’s ________.”
    KK3a Words for the perfect condition—for example, in cooking: “It’s done to ________.”
    KK3b Something done perfectly—for example, a piece of work: “It’s done to ________.”
    KK4 When things turn out just right, you might say, “Everything is ________ now.”
    KK5 A very skilled or expert person—for example, at woodworking: “He’s a ________.”
    KK6 Something low-grade or of poor quality—for example, a piece of merchandise: “I wouldn’t buy that, it’s ________.”
    KK7 When wood—for example, a tree stump—is starting to decay inside, you’d say, “It’s ________ inside.”
    KK8 Other words for succeeding, especially in spite of difficulty: “He had a hard time, but at last he ________.”
    KK9 When someone undertakes something too big for him to handle: “This time you’ve ________.”
    KK10 Other words for something failing—for example, a plan: “He didn’t work it out carefully enough, and his plan ________.”
    KK11 To make great objections or a big fuss about something: “When we asked him to do that, he ________.”
    KK12 A meeting where there’s a lot of talking: “They got together yesterday and had a real ________.”
    KK13 Other words for arguing: “They stood there for an hour ________.”
    KK14 Something that people disagree about: “I have a ________ to pick with you.”
    KK15 A disagreement or quarrel: “They had ________ about where the fence was to be.”
    KK16 A great noise or disturbance: “I wish they’d stop making that awful ________.”
    -KK17 Words and expressions meaning ‘worthless’: “It isn’t worth ________.”
    -KK18 If something is in good running order: “This sewing machine is ________.”
    *KK19 If a machine or appliance is temporarily out of order: “My sewing machine ________.” [Early QRs: If it’s out of order: “My sewing machine is ________.”]
    KK20a Something that looks as if it might collapse any minute: “That old shed is certainly ________.”
    KK20b Something that looks as if it might collapse any minute: “Our old washing machine is ________.”
    KK21 When something hollow is crushed by a heavy weight, or by a fall: “They ran the wagon over the coffee pot and ________.”
    KK22 Other ways of saying completely shattered: “The jug fell out of the window and was ________.”
    KK23 Weak or unsteady: “I think the footbridge will hold but it is a bit ________.”
    KK24 Something that breaks easily: “She broke her arm again: Her bones must be ________.”
    KK25 Something that bends or yields easily: “That willow branch is very ________.”
    KK26 Something that makes no difference at all to you: “He can think what he likes, it ________ me.”
    KK27 A very lively, active old person: “For his age, he’s ________.”
    KK28 Feeling ambitious and eager to work:
    KK29 To start working very hard: “He was slow at first but now he’s really ________.”
    KK30 Feeling slowed up or without energy: “I certainly feel ________.”
    KK31 To go about aimlessly looking for distraction: “He doesn’t have anything to do, so he’s just ________ around.”
    KK32 Do you use the word ‘busywork’ around here? What does it mean?
    KK33 Other ways of saying ‘in succession’: “He had a cold, then the measles, then chicken pox ________.”
    KK34 Other expressions meaning very neat and clean: “Her house always looks ________.”
    KK35 When someone wants to pass on a compliment about you, in exchange for one about himself, he says, “I have a ________ for you.”
    KK36 Talking about a person who is easily fooled: “It’s easy to ________.”
    KK37 Words to describe a very sly person: “He’s ________.”
    KK38 To put preparations on the hair to hold it close to the head and make it shiny: “I wish he wouldn’t ________ his hair down so!”
    KK39 Stirred up, upset: “Because of the storm, the pond was all ________.”
    KK40 Other words meaning ‘usually’: “They come twice a month, ________.”
    KK41 Something that is very difficult to do: “I managed to get through with it, but it was ________.”
    KK42a Expressions about a person who does something very easily: “For him that would be ________.”
    KK42b Expressions about a person who does something very easily: “He could do that ________.”
    KK43 When the hardest part of a task is finished: “We’ve still a long way to go, but at least we ________.”
    -KK44 To continue doing something even though it is difficult: “For five winters we’ve ________.”
    KK45 Other words for a narrow escape: “That time, he really had a ________.”
    KK46 Other expressions for taking things as they come and not worrying: “The whole family was sort of ________.”
    KK47 Something that is left undecided or unfinished: “Perhaps we’d better just ________.”
    KK48 When you work something out as you go, without having a plan or pattern to follow: “I didn’t have anything to go by, so I just did it ________.”
    KK49 When you don’t have the time or ambition to do something thoroughly: “I’m not going to give the place a real cleaning, I’ll just ________.”
    KK50 When something is planned out carefully, down to the last detail: “He had it all worked out ________.”
    KK51 Very plainly or abruptly: “I asked him ________ what he meant by that.”
    KK52 To do something in an indirect and complicated way: “I don’t know why he had to go ________ to do that.”
    KK53 When one thing suddenly hits hard against something else: “He ran ________ into a car.”
    KK54 Just about equal, very close: “They were both fast runners and it was ________ all the way.”
    -KK54b Just about equal, very close: “It doesn’t matter to me—it’s ________.”
    KK55a To deny something very firmly: “No, not by a ________.”
    KK55b To deny something very firmly: “Would you work for him?” “Not on your ________.”
    KK55c Other expressions of strong denial:
    KK56 Wood that is heavy from being in water a long time: It’s ________.
    KK57 To take a thing up so as to judge its weight: “That suitcase must weigh forty pounds. Just ________ it.”
    KK58 An excuse that looks as if it would not stand up under questioning: “His story won’t ________.”
    KK59 To have a mistaken idea, or to be quite wrong about something: “If he thinks she’ll help him, he’s ________.”
    KK60 Having nothing in particular to do: “I’d just as soon go with you this afternoon—I’m ________ anyway.”
    KK61 Food taken alone, with nothing added: “Would you like milk or lemon in your tea?” “No thanks, I’ll take it ________.”
    KK62 When you want to make it clear that you will not do something: “I wouldn’t do that for ________.”
    KK63 To do a clumsy or hurried job of repairing something: “It will never last—he just ________.”
    KK64 Speaking of the part of a city that was once very fine, but isn’t any more: “The neighborhood is sort of ________.”
    KK65 Expressions meaning ‘the same sort’: “If you like Bob, I’m sure you’ll like his brother—they’re ________.”
    KK66 When you are showing somebody the right way to do something: “No, not like that—do it ________.”
    KK67 When people think alike about something: “On that particular thing, we ________.”
    KK68 When people don’t think alike about something: “We agree on most things, but on politics we’re ________.”
    -KK69 What other words do you have for ‘sort’ or ‘kind’? “What ________ rifle is that?”
    KK70 Something that has got out of proper shape: “That house is all ________.”
    Size, Quanity and Number
    LL1 Something very small: “I only took a ________ one.” (Gesture with two fingers.)
    LL2 Other words meaning too small to be worth much: “I don’t want that little ________ potato.”
    LL3a Shrunk, dried up: “These apples are all ________.”
    LL3b Shrunk, dried up: “He’s a little ________ old man.”
    LL4 Very large: “He took a ________ helping of potatoes.”
    LL5 Something impressively big: “That cabbage is really a ________.”
    LL6a A small, indefinite amount—for example, of cream: “I’ll take just a ________ of cream in my coffee.”
    LL6b A small, indefinite amount—for example, of butter: “I’ll put in just a ________ of butter.”
    LL6c A small, indefinite amount—for example, of cinnamon: “It still needs just a ________ of cinnamon.”
    LL7 In small amounts, by small degrees: “She didn’t get the money all at once, they sent it to her ________.”
    LL8a A large amount or number: More than enough—for example, of time: “He’s got ________ of time.”
    LL8b Or, a large number—for example, of cousins: “She has a whole ________ of cousins.”
    LL9a As much as you need or more—for example, of apples: “We’ve got ________ of apples.”
    LL9b Or, all you need or more—for example, of clothes: “She’s got clothes ________.”
    LL10 A whole group of people: “They made too much noise, so he sent the whole ________ home.”
    LL11a In short supply—hard to get: “Good men are ________ these days.”
    LL11b In short supply—hard to get: “There’s a ________ of seed corn this year.”
    LL12 Not to have enough—for example, of money needed to pay for something: “I’m fifty cents ________ of the price.”
    LL13 Not full or sufficient: “She gave us a ________ meal.”
    LL14 None at all, not even one: “This pond used to be full of fish but now there’s ________ left.”
    LL15 To write ten (10), what figure do you put after ‘1'?
    -LL16 The most basic thing, the simplest thing: “He doesn’t know ________ thing about plumbing.”
    LL17 Ways of saying there’s no more of something: “The potatoes are ________.”
    LL18 To do no work at all, not even make any effort: “She hasn’t ________ all day.”
    LL19 A few, anywhere from two to four: “Just put in ________ onions.”
    LL20 Beads to wear around the throat: “She wore a ________ of green beads.”
    LL21 Two things—one and also the other: “Do you want the red one or the blue one?” “I want ________ of them.”
    LL22 Less than you should get: “They’ll try to give you ________ every time.”
    LL23 Cheated, treated dishonestly: “These apples are wormy, I think you got ________.”
    LL24 To keep firewood neat you have to cut it, split it, and ________ it up.
    LL25 Expressions meaning entirely, completely: “He sold out the whole place, ________.”
    LL26a Other words for ‘all the way’: “He drove ________ to the end of the road.”
    LL26b Other words meaning ‘entirely’—for example, “He’s Irish ________.”
    -LL27 Other words meaning ‘thoroughly’: “The boss bawled him out ________.”
    LL28 Expressions meaning entirely full: “The box of apples was ________.”
    LL29 Any sign or trace: “He left last week, and nobody’s seen ________ of him since.”
    LL30 Words and expressions meaning ‘nearly’ or ‘almost’: “He fell off the ladder and ________ (broke his neck).”
    LL31 Other ways of saying all but one: “Everybody’s here now, ________ John.”
    *LL32 Expressions meaning that one man’s ability is not nearly as great as another man’s: “John can’t (or doesn’t, or isn’t) ________ Bill.” [Early QRs: Other ways of saying John is not as good as Bill: “John ________ Bill.”]
    LL33 A longer distance: New York or California—which is ________ from here?
    LL34 When a road is blocked: “This is all ________ we can go.”
    LL35 Words used to make a statement stronger: “This cake tastes ________ good.”
    LL36 To make a statement much stronger: “Poor fellow. I think it’s a ________ shame.”
    LL37 To make a statement as strong as you can: “I could have wrung her neck, I was so ________ mad.”
    -LL38 Very much, to a great degree: “He wasn’t ________ willing to come.”
    Position
    MM1 Words meaning ‘opposite to’: Suppose the barn is here (Gesture with hands) and the shed is here, you could say, “The shed is ________ the barn.”
    MM2 Suppose a little girl accidentally gets her dress on wrong so that the back part is turned around, you could say, “Look, you’ve got your dress on ________.”
    MM3 When someone does something the wrong way round you might tell him: “This is the front, you’ve got the whole thing turned ________.”
    MM4 Words for a short distance past—for example, the mail box, a short distance past the pine tree, you could say: “The mail box is just ________ the pine tree.”
    *MM5 When you’re pointing out a house that’s not far away: “The house is over ________.” (Gesture.) [Early QRs: When somebody is pointing out a house that’s not far away: (Gesture.)]
    MM6 Other words meaning ‘very close’ or ‘only a short distance away’: “The house is ________ the park.”
    MM7 If there’s a house on each side of the school (Set up an object and use both hands) you’d say, “The school is ________ the houses.”
    MM8 A bad housekeeper sweeps the dirt either under the rug or ________ the door:
    MM9 If you are standing in line, and a man named John is in the position before you, you might say, “We stood in line and John was ________ me.”
    MM10 The opposite of ‘behind’: “Is the car behind the house?” “No, I left it ________.”
    MM11 When you’re trying to find something—you don’t know where it is—you might say, “I must have left it ________.”
    MM12a Other ways of saying ‘in all directions’—for example, you might say, “He shot into a flock of birds and they went ________.”
    MM12b Other ways of saying ‘in all directions’—for example, you might say, “When she was out on the dance floor, she broke her beads and they went ________.”
    MM13 The table was nice and straight until he came along and knocked it ________.
    MM14 If a drugstore is on one corner of a square and a gas station is on the far corner you might say, “The drugstore is ________ the gas station.”
    MM15 If a carpenter nails a board crossing another board at an angle, you might say, “He nailed the board on ________.”
    MM16 If you’re walking with somebody to the other corner of a square, and you want to save steps, you might say, “It’ll be shorter if we ________.”
    MM17 If two things are next to each other, you might say, “He put the two boxes on the table (Gesture with hands) ________.”
    *MM18 “Going from the kitchen to the back steps, he walked ________ the door.” (Pointing gesture) [Early QRs: Other ways of saying ‘out’—“He walked ________ the door (through!)”]
    MM19 “He took the letter ________ his pocket.” (Gesture.)
    MM20 “So that she could sit down, he took his coat ________ the chair.” (Gesture.)
    -MM21 Other ways of saying ‘off’: “Get ________ my land.”
    MM22 If you are talking to a friend who lives in another place and you want to inquire about his neighborhood, you might ask, “How are things ________?”
    MM23 Do you use ‘uptown’ and ‘downtown’ around here? What do they mean?
    MM24 Other expressions meaning ‘a short distance’: “The river is just a ________ from the house.”
    MM25 Expressions meaning a long distance: “Texas is a ________ (from here).”
    Exclamations
    NN1 Other words like ‘yes’: “Are you coming along too?” (Give response in IPA; include the ‘grunts’.)
    NN2 Exclamations of very strong agreement: Somebody says, “I think Smith is absolutely right,” and you reply, “________.”
    NN3 Words and expressions meaning ‘Don’t you agree?’: “She’s a nice-looking woman, ________?” or “We ought to come back here again, ________?”
    NN4 Other ways of answering ‘no’: “Would you lend him ten dollars?” “________.”
    NN5 Other ways of saying ‘Do you understand?’: “You take hold of it this way, ________?”
    NN6a Exclamations of joy—for example, when somebody gets a pleasant surprise, he might shout “________.”
    NN6b Expressions of joy used mostly by children:
    NN7 Exclamations of surprise: “They’re getting married next week? Well, ________.”
    NN8a Exclamations of annoyance or disgust: “Oh ________. I’ve lost my glasses again.”
    NN8b Other expressions of annoyance: “This jar won’t come open, ________ it.”
    NN9a Exclamations showing great annoyance: “________. The electric power is off again.”
    NN9b Exclamations showing great annoyance: “He’s run off with my hammer again, ________!”
    NN10a Expressions (such as ‘hello’) used when you meet somebody you know quite well:
    NN10b Greetings used when you meet somebody you do not know well:
    NN11 Informal ways of saying ‘good-bye’ to people you know quite well: (Include humorous expressions.)
    NN12a Things that people say to put a child off when he asks too many questions: “What’s that for?” (Pronounce ‘fur’.)
    NN12b Things that people say to put off a child when he asks, “What are you making?”
    NN13 When you think that the thing somebody has just said is silly or untrue: “Oh, that’s a lot of ________.”
    -NN14 When you doubt something that somebody has said, and you want to be sure that it is true, you say: “Is that really so?” He answers “________.”
    -NN15 An oath or profane word: “Every time he opens his mouth a ________ comes out.”
    -NN16 Swearing or using obscene language: “He’s always ________.”
    NN17 Something that keeps on annoying you—for example, a fly that keeps buzzing around you: “That ________ fly won’t go away.”
    NN18 When somebody sneezes, what do people say to him?
    NN19 When you want people to stop talking for a moment so that you can listen for something, you say: (Gesture, raising finger and cocking head.)
    NN20a Exclamations caused by sudden pain—a blow on the thumb:
    NN20b Exclamations caused by sudden pain—a slight burn:
    NN21a Exclamations caused by sudden pain—a pinched finger:
    NN21b Exclamations caused by sudden pain—a hard blow on the chest:
    NN21c Exclamations caused by sudden pain—a twisted ankle:
    NN22a Expressions used to drive away people or animals—for example, flies:
    NN22b Expressions used to drive away children:
    NN22c Expressions used to drive away a dog:
    NN22d Expressions used to drive away animals other than dogs:
    NN23 Exclamations when people smell a very bad odor:
    NN24 Humorous substitutes for stronger exclamations: “Why the son of a ________!”
    NN25a Weakened substitutes for ‘damn’ or ‘damned’: “________ it all!”
    NN25b Weakened substitutes for ‘damn’ or ‘damned’: “Well, I’ll be ________!”
    NN26a Weakened substitutes for ‘hell’: “Oh ________!”
    NN26b Weakened substitutes for ‘hell’: “Go to ________!”
    NN26c Weakened substitutes for ‘hell’: “What the ________!”
    NN27a Weakened substitutes for ‘god’: “My ________!”
    NN27b Weakened substitutes for ‘god’: “For ________ sakes!”
    NN28a Exclamations beginning with ‘good’: “Good ________!”
    NN28b Exclamations beginning with ‘goodness’: “Goodness ________!”
    NN29a Exclamations beginning with ‘great’: “Great ________!”
    NN29b Exclamations beginning with ‘land’: “Land ________!”
    NN29c Exclamations beginning with ‘holy’: “Holy ________!”
    NN30 Exclamations beginning with the sound of ‘j’: (Make the sound ‘jee-‘, get all variants.)
    NN31 Exclamations beginning with the sound of ‘cr-‘, for example, ‘cripes’:
    NN32 Exclamations like ‘I swear’ or ‘I vow’: “I ________.”
    Verb Forms (Within Text)
    -OO1a To buy: “Have you ________ your groceries?”
    -OO1b To buy: “Yes, I ________ them an hour ago.”
    OO2a Talking about eating: “He feels sick—he must have ________ something (that disagreed with him).”
    OO2b Talking about eating: “I don’t feel right—I think I ________ too much.”
    OO3a Speaking about drinking coffee: “The coffee’s all gone—we must have ________ (a lot).”
    OO3b Speaking about drinking coffee: “There’s not a drop left—we ________ (it all).”
    -OO4a To knit: “When we were young, she ________ all our socks.”
    -OO4b To knit: “She has also ________ sweaters and mittens.”
    OO5a Talking about heating houses: “Before furnaces came in, our house was ________ (with a stove).”
    OO5b Talking about heating houses: “Years ago they ________ (the house) with a stove.”
    OO6a Talking about dough with yeast in it: “The room was warm, so the dough ________ (quickly).”
    OO6b Talking about dough with yeast in it: “She put the dough in the oven too soon—before it had ________ enough.”
    OO7a Talking about giving presents: “Yesterday was John’s birthday so everybody ________ (him presents).”
    OO7b Talking about giving presents: “I didn’t know about it in time or I would’ve ________ (one too).”
    +OO8a Talking about hanging a criminal: “Before the electric chair came in, a murderer would be ________.”
    +OO8b If a man committed suicide by hanging, you’d say he ________ (himself).
    -OO8c Hang: “He ________ his coat on my hook.” [As OO8a]
    -OO8d “It has ________ for two days.” [As OO8b]
    -OO9a To ask: “He won’t tell me even though I’ve ________ him many times.”
    -OO9b To ask: “Today I’m going to ask him the same question I ________ him yesterday.”
    OO10a Talking about climbing trees: “When we were children we often ________ (trees).”
    OO10b Talking about climbing trees: “Some trees were dangerous—we shouldn’t have ________ (those).”
    OO11a Talking about catching mice: “Some mice got into the cellar but our cat ________ (them).”
    OO11b Talking about catching mice: “That makes five she’s ________ (this week).”
    OO12a Talking about dogs biting: “Some dogs will bite—last week the mailman was ________.”
    OO12b Talking about dogs biting: “It was a big black dog that ________ him.”
    OO13a About breaking a leg: “He limps ever since he ________ his leg.”
    OO13b About breaking a leg: “That’s the second time he has ________ (that leg).”
    OO14a About the wind blowing hard: “Last night the wind ________ (very hard).”
    OO14b About the wind blowing hard: “One of my apple trees was ________ (down).”
    OO15a About freezing your ears: “I was so cold my ears nearly ________.”
    OO15b About freezing your ears: “If he had been out last night he would have ________ (his ears).”
    OO16a Talking about bringing tools: “I was supposed to bring the nails—you should have ________ (the hammer).”
    OO16b Talking about bringing tools: “I did bring the hammer, and I also ________ (a saw).” (Gesture of sawing)
    OO17a Talking about someone coming home: “Yesterday her son ________ home.”
    OO17b Talking about someone coming home: “He was late; he should have ________ (days ago).”
    *OO18a Talking about drawing a plan: “Last year the plan for the new school was ________ (up).” [Early QRs (as OO18b): “He has already ________ the plans for three other schools.”]
    *OO18b Talking about drawing a plan: “I know that man ________ (it).” [Early QRs (as OO18a): Draw: “He ________ the plan for the school.”]
    OO19a Talking about stretching out to rest: “He felt tired, so he went to the couch (or other word) and ________ (down for a while).”
    OO19b Talking about stretching out to rest: “He’ll feel better after he has ________ (down a while).”
    OO20a About the school bell ringing: “When it was time for school, the bell ________.”
    OO20b About the school bell ringing: “It’s eight o’clock. Has the bell ________ (yet)?”
    -OO21a To learn: “Even as a child, he ________ fast.”
    -OO21b To learn: “He has always ________ quicker than the others.”
    OO22a About knowing people: “He used to live next door. At that time I ________ (him well).”
    OO22b About knowing people, “For the past twenty years I’ve ________ (him well).”
    OO23a About a child growing: “Billy has to have new clothes—during the summer he ________ (two inches).”
    OO23b About a child growing: “You wouldn’t think a child could have ________ (so fast).”
    -OO24a To fight: “Bill ________ hard, but Jack beat him.”
    -OO24b To fight: “Bill has ________ with every boy in school.”
    OO25a Talking about diving: “The water is deep enough—the children have often ________ (there).”
    OO25b Talking about diving: “Only yesterday the children ________ (there).”
    +OO26a Talking about drowning: “The current is very strong. Several people have ________ (there).”
    +OO26b Talking about drowning: “Only last week a boy was ________ (there).”
    -OO26c Drown: “The water is quite deep. Lots of people have been ________ there.” [As OO26a]
    -OO26d “Only last week a child ________ here.” [As OO26b]
    OO27a Talking about riding horses: “When she was a girl she ________ horseback.”
    OO27b Talking about riding horses: “All my life I’ve ________ (horses).”
    OO28a Talking about running: “John was so scared he ________ (all the way home).”
    OO28b Talking about running: “He was out of breath because he had ________ (so fast).”
    OO29a Talking about swimming: “The water is clean—we have always ________ (there).”
    OO29b Talking about swimming: “When we were children we ________ (there too).”
    OO30a Talking about a horse throwing the rider: “John got a bad horse and was ________ (off).”
    OO30b Talking about a horse throwing the rider: “Last week the same horse ________ (his brother).”
    -OO31a To dream: “Last night I ________ I was going away.”
    -OO31b To dream: “I have ________ that same thing often.”
    -OO32a To wake: “Last night I ________ three times.”
    OO32b If a person can’t sleep steadily but keeps on waking, he might say, “Every night this week I’ve ________ (several times).”
    *OO33a Talking about doing chores: “Seven days a week, chores have to be ________.” [Early QRs (as OO33b): “I guess I’ve ________ that a thousand times.”]
    *OO33b Talking about doing chores: “This morning as usual we ________ (the chores).” [Early QRs (as OO33a): Do: “I ________ it again this morning.”]
    OO34a Talking about writing a letter home: “It’s weeks since she last ________ (us a letter).”
    OO34b Talking about writing a letter home: “She should have ________ (long ago).”
    OO35a Talking about vegetables thriving: “Last year we fertilized the garden, and the plants really ________.”
    OO35b Talking about vegetables thriving: “That land is poor—nothing has ever ________ there.”
    -OO36a To wear: “He went dancing and ________ his new shoes.”
    -OO36b To wear: “His new shoes were no good. He has ________ a hole in them already.”
    *OO37a Talking about clothes shrinking: “The first time my wool socks were washed they ________.” [Early QRs (as OO37b): “They ________ the first time they were washed.”]
    *OO37b Talking about clothes shrinking: “I can’t get them on because they’ve ________ (too much).” [Early QRs (as OO37a): Shrink: “My wool socks have ________ so that I can’t wear them.”]
    OO38a About shoes fitting just right: “When I tried these shoes on, they ________ (just right).”
    OO38b About shoes fitting just right: “I wouldn’t have bought them if they hadn’t ________ (just right).”
    OO39a Talking about a meeting beginning: “Has the meeting ________ (yet)?”
    OO39b Talking about a meeting beginning: “Yes, it ________ (an hour ago).”
    OO40a About driving a car: “They borrowed our car last night and John ________.”
    OO40b About driving a car: “That was the first time John had ever ________ (our car).”
    OO41a About taking too many chances: “He got hurt because he ________ (too many chances).”
    OO41b About taking too many chances: “He would be alive today if he hadn’t ________ (so many chances).”
    OO42a About stealing money: “He admitted that he ________ (the money).”
    OO42b About stealing money: “He says it’s the first time he has ever ________ (money).”
    OO43a About pleading with somebody: “She said she was afraid to be alone and ________ (with me to stay).”
    OO43b About pleading: “I wouldn’t have stayed if she hadn’t ________ (so hard).”
    OO44a About somebody in a chair: “He did nothing at all—he just ________ (there).”
    OO44b About somebody in a chair: “All day long he has just ________ (in that chair).”
    OO45a About seeing somebody: “He thought nobody was looking but I ________ (him hide it).”
    OO45b About seeing somebody: “Many’s the time I’ve ________ him hide things.”
    OO46a Talking about dragging something heavy: “We hitched the log on and ________ it out (of the woods).”
    OO46b Talking about dragging something heavy: “Half a mile or so we must have ________ (it)!”
    OO47a Talking about horses sweating: “It was a warm day and the horses ________ (a lot).”
    OO47b Talking about horses sweating: “They wouldn’t have caught cold if they hadn’t ________ (so much).”
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