A

 


Abnaki 

      sannup n • [Algonquian; Narraganset sannop, Abnaki senanbe a married male member of the community] 

abuse; abusively

      fart n a • generalized term of abuse, esp for a man

      four-flusher n • often used as a vague term of abuse

      red-neck n 5 • orig applied abusively to..members and supporters of the National Miners’ Union

      sapsucker n 4 • Used as a term of abuse for a person

      snipe n 7 • Used as a term of abuse

      trifling adj 1 • used as a vague term of abuse

      turd beetle n • also used as a term of abuse

Acadian

      ploye n • [Canadian (esp Acadian) Fr]

affected (See also hyperurbanism)

      ask v A1c (pronc) • occas considered an affected pronc

      aunt n A1 (pronc) • sometimes considered affected, esp when overcorrected to [ɔnt]

      either adj, adv, pron, conj • often considered affected

affection; affectionate(ly)

      bubeleh n • affectionate form of address

      bugger n1 B2 • freq used affectionately

      bumps n2 • used as an affectionate form of address

      cack n1 • [..cf other derog terms applied affectionately to children..]

      chickie n 3 • used as an affectionate term of address

      codger n 1 • often derog, sometimes affectionate

      critter n B3 • affectionate

      chickie n 3 • used as an affectionate term of address

      darky n 1 • formerly often considered neutral or affectionate; now usu considered offensive

      duffer n • used with a wide range of connotations from derog to affectionate

      dupa n • also used as an affectionate term for a person

      fart n b • a term of affection

      galoot n • usu derog, occas affectionate

      home boy n 1 • affectionate or derog

      hunks n 1 • somewhat old-fash; occas affectionate

little old adj phr • Used to express disparagement, familiarity, or affection

      lollipop n 2 • also used as an affectionate nickname

      nigger n1 B1c • Used in a relatively neutral or affectionate sense by White speakers

      peanut n 3 • sometimes used as an affectionate term for a small child

      poot n 2 • a..sometimes affectionate term for a person

      shitepoke n B5 • used affectionately

      skeester n • often used as an affectionate term for a child

      skeezicks n • ..usu used affectionately of a child

      tick n1 4 • Used as a derog, or rarely affectionate, term for a person

      toot n1 1 • used derogatorily or affectionately of a person

Africa; African (See also African, Central; Africa(n), West)

      all both pron • [Perh an African calque..]

      all two adj, pron, conj • [..prob an African calque..]

      biddy n3 • [Prob coalescence of biddy n1 and beedie of Afr origin..]

      bim adv • [..perh of Afr origin]

      bloodynoun n • [..perh of Afr orig]

      boo boo n1 • [Prob from an Afr word (cf Fon bũbũ insect)..]

      broadus n • [..from Port barata bargain, a loanword into Afr pidgins or creoles..]

      bungo n • [AmSpan bongo, prob from an Afr language]

      crack one’s teeth v phr • [Afr calque..]

      cudjoe-wood n • [Cudjoe African day-name for a male born on Monday + wood]

      cunner n2 • [Perh by coalescence of canoe, ult from Arawak, with Gullah ˈ kunu, ult Afr..]

      cush n1 • [Of Afr orig, ult from Arabic..]

      cut-eye n, v • [..prob loan transl of an Afr idiom..]

      for prep B2 • [..prob been infl by one or more African languages..]

      fuh v • [Prob Afr..; cf DJE fi particle introd infin3 2]

      goober n1 • [Of Afr origin..]

      goofer n • [Of Afr origin]

      gris-gris n • [Fr creole, ult of Afr orig]

      gumbo n • [LaFr, of African origin..]

      joog v • [Prob of Afr origin (cf DJE juk, DBE jook)..]

      juba n • [Perh Afr; cf DJE Juba..]

      magofer n • [..perh of Afr or AmInd origin..]

      mojo n • [Of Afr origin..]

      ofay n • [..African sources have been proposed.., but the lack of early attestations weakens the hypothesis..]

      Sambo n1 • [From a personal name of Afr origin..]

      suck one's teeth v phr • vocal “gesture”..in Black cultures in Africa, the Caribbean, and the US

      sweet-mouth v • [Prob of Afr origin]

      swonger adj • [Of Afr origin..]

      swonger v • [Of Afr origin..]

      titty n1 • [..for possible Afr lang analogues cf DBE]

      tote v • [Perh of Afr orig..]

      wanga n • [Haitian Creole, ult of Afr orig]

African, Central

      cooter n • [Afr, akin to Bambara, Malinké kuta turtle; also Central Afr nkudu..]

Africa(n), West

      banjo n • [Intro from W Africa in var forms prob ult < Port banza guitar]

      be v B8b • by substrate infl from W Afr languages

      day clean n • [Prob transl of a West African expression..]

      duppy n • [Bube (a Bantu language of West Afr) dupe ghost..]

      foo-foo n1 • [Of West African origin, rel to Ewe fu1fu1..and Fon fufu..]

      hoodoo n • [W Afr..]

      John Canoe n • [Folk-etym from W Afr source..]

      ki intj • [W Afr..]

      nyam v • [Of W Afr origin..]

      pickaninny n • [W Afr and W Indian Creoles, of Span or Port origin; OED2 1657 ➝]

      poor joe n2 • [Prob of West Afr origin.., affected..by folk- etym..]

      poppy show n • [..widespread in Caribbean and W Afr creoles..]

      say conj • [From any of several W Afr languages;..cf DBE say, DJE se]

      una pron • [W Afr; cf Igbo unu you (pl); cf also DJE unu, DBE ona]

      voodoo n • [LaFr voudou of W Afr origin; cf Ewe, Fon vodu spirit, demon]

Alabama

      butt-head n • chiefly S Atl, AL (MAP)

      Cajun n1 3 • AL

      dog fly n 1 • chiefly C and S Atl, AL (MAP)

      fiddle worm n • AL

      flip n1 1 • Midl, Sth, esp AL

      garage apartment n • scattered, but esp TX, AL, SC

      gooselock v • esp AL

      guinea squat n • esp AL, FL, GA

      key n 3 • chiefly S Atl, AL (MAP and Map Section)

      Lane cake n • Sth, esp AL, GA

      marionette n • esp LA, AL

      mellow bug n • esp GA, AL

      mourning dove n 2 • chiefly AL, FL

      nigger killer n 1 • chiefly S Atl, AL

      pullet bone n • esp AL, GA

      river shrimp n • LA, MS, AL

      rusty lizard n • AL, AR, GA, LA, TX

      sleeper n 3 • esp AL

      slop worm n • esp GA, AL

      speck-back (tick) n • AL, AR, LA, TX

      swale n 2 • FL, AL

      tickbird n 1 • chiefly AL, GA

      twistification n • sAppalachians, GA, AL

      velvet-tail n 1 • esp Cent; also AL

      weather house n • SC, GA, AL

      white meat n • chiefly Sth, esp AL

      wildcat adj • chiefly S Midl, AL, OK (MAP)

      Yankee dime n • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp AL (MAP)

Alaska            

      ahkio n • AK

      Arctic trout n • AK

      arctic wine n • AK

      arm pull n • AK

      babiche n • Nth, esp AK

      banana belt n • NW, esp AK

      banya n • AK

      barabara n • AK

      bidar n • AK

      bingle n • chiefly AK

      bird bill n 1 • chiefly NW and AK

      break-up n 1 • AK

      burn n2 • AK

      bush n1 B1b • Nth, esp AK

      cache n • AK

      catch v B11 • AK

      cheechako n • AK, Pacific NW

      chy n • AK

      dog box n • AK

      dog derby n • AK

      dog driver n 1 • AK

      dog driving n • AK

      dog moccasin n • AK

      dog musher n • AK

      dog mushing n • AK

      dog pot n • AK

      dog punch v phr • esp AK

      dog salmon n • NW, AK

      Dolly Varden n 1 • chiefly NW, AK

      down below adv phr 1b • AK

      dry fish n • AK

      ear weight contest n • AK

      Eskimo ice cream n • AK

      Eskimo potato n • AK

      Eskimo yo-yo n • AK

      fish burner n • AK

      fish camp n 1 • chiefly AK

      fish pirate n • AK

      fish wheel n • Pacific NW, AK

      float house n • NW, AK

      freeze-up n • chiefly AK

      grass widow n 3 • chiefly AK, Pacific NW

      ground cedar n 2 • chiefly NEast, Pacific NW, AK

      hiyu adj • esp AK, NW

      hoochinoo n • chiefly AK

      hooligan n • AK

      ice bridge n • AK

      ice worm n • AK

      icta n • Pacific NW, AK

      Indian celery n • AK

      Indian rhubarb n 2 • AK

      Indian rice n 3 • Pacific NW, AK

      inside adv 2 • AK

      inside n • AK

      Irish lord n • esp AK

      iron chink n • AK, WA

      iron dog n 2 • AK

      Kamchatka lily n • AK

      kamleika n • AK

      kelpfish n a • AK

      king crab n 2 • chiefly AK

      king salmon n • Pacific, AK

      klootchman n • chiefly Pacific NW, AK

      kneel jump n • AK

      kokanee (salmon) n • West, esp AK, NW, Rocky Mts

      lace flower n 2 • Pacific NW, AK

      lagoonberry n • AK

      land otter n • esp AK, Pacific NW

      lay n1 2b • AK

      layman n • AK

      line cabin n • AK

      lingonberry n • chiefly AK

      little redfish n • NW, AK

      lowbush cranberry n • chiefly AK

      lower adj 2 • chiefly AK

      lush n • chiefly AK

      mackerel n 2 • AK

      makoola n • AK

      marsh felwort n • chiefly AK

      mashu n • AK

      moroshka n • AK

      mossberry n 2 • AK

      moss heather n • chiefly AK

      mountain hare n • West, AK

      mountain heath n 1 • chiefly West, AK

      mountain heather n 2 • chiefly West, AK

      mountain heather n 3 • AK

      mountain juniper n • chiefly West, AK

      mountain marigold n 1 • AK

      mouse nut n • AK

      muck-a-muck n 1 • chiefly NW, AK

      mud shark n • nwAK

      mug-up n • scattered, but esp N Atl, Upper Missip Valley, AK

      mukluk n 1 • chiefly AK

      mukluk telegraph n • chiefly AK

      muktuk n • AK

      mush n3 • AK

      mush v2 • chiefly AK

      musher n • chiefly AK

      muskeg n • chiefly AK, MN

      nagoonberry n • AK

      neck v 2 • AK

      needlefish n 3 • AK

      needlefish n 4 • AK

      niggerhead n 2 • scattered, but esp AK

      nushnik n • AK

      oogruk n • AK

      out adv B1 • West, esp AK

      outside adv • esp AK

      outside n 1 • AK

      panguingue n • AK, NW, CA

      parka n (pronc) • chiefly AK |ˈpɑrki|

      parka squirrel n • AK

      petrushki n • swAK

      pickerel n 2a • chiefly Gt Lakes, AK

      pink daisy n • AK

      pink salmon n • chiefly AK

      pirok n • AK

      pogy n 6 • AK

      poke n1 1b(2) • N Atl, AK

      pollack n1 2 • esp AK

      poque n • AK

      potlatch n • chiefly Pacific NW, AK

      potlatch v • Pacific NW, AK

      puchki n • AK

      pulka n • AK

      pup n • AK

      pupmobile n • AK

      redberry n k • wAK

      redfish n b • chiefly AK, ME

      red salmon n • chiefly AK

      red snapper n 2 • AK, Pacific

      rock ptarmigan n • chiefly AK

      salmonberry n c • chiefly AK

      salmon trout n 1d • West, esp AK

      sarana n • AK

      sheefish n • AK

      Siwash n 1 • chiefly NW, AK

      siwash v 1 • AK

      Siwash camp n • AK

      Siwash dog n • AK

      Siwash harness n • AK

      skijoring n • Nth, esp AK, NEast

      skookum adj • chiefly NW, AK

      skookum chuck n • chiefly NW, AK

      skookum house n • chiefly NW, AK

      smaller states n pl • AK

      snipe v 2 • chiefly AK, CA

      sno-go n, v • chiefly AK

      snowmachine n, v • formerly widespread, now esp AK

      soapberry n 2 • chiefly AK

      sockeye salmon n • esp AK

      sourdough n 2 • chiefly NW, AK

      spruce chicken n • AK

      spruce hen n • esp MI, AK (MAP)

      squaw candyn • chiefly AK

      squaw man n • esp NW, AK

      States, the n • AK

      strip fishing n • esp AK

      swamp blueberry n b • AK, West

      taku n • seAK

      tank-stove n • AK

      tanner crab n • AK

      termination dust n • AK

      tundra rose n • AK

      tyee salmon n • esp WA, AK

      ulu n2 • AK

      wanigan n 1 • chiefly ME, Gt Lakes; also AK

      wanigan n 6 • chiefly AK

      wanigan n 7 • AK

      washateria n 2 • AK

      white sock(s) n • AK

      wild celery n 1a • AK

      wild hyacinth n 3 • NEng, AK

      wild potato n 2c • AK      

      wild redtop n 3 • chiefly AK

      wild snapdragon n 2 • esp AK

      williwaw n • chiefly AK

      willow grouse n 1 • chiefly AK

      wineberry n 2 • AK

      wolf scarer n • AK

Algonquian

      ackempucky n • [Prob Algonquian..]

      atamasco (lily) n • [Amer Ind attamusco prob related to Algonquian misk red..]

      babiche n • [CanFr, from Algonquian apapish cord, thread..]

      bogan n • [Prob Algonquian]

      chinquapin n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      chogset n • [Of Algonquian origin]

      coakum n • [Perh from an Algonquian word for “red”..]

      cushaw n • [Prob Algonquian]

      eatup n • [Algonquian netop close friend..]

      hominy n • [Prob from or rel to Algonquian minneash fruit, berry]

      killhag n • [Of Algonquian orig..]

      kinnikinnick n • [Algonquian..]

      kiskitomas n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      kyack n1 • [Prob Algonquian..]

      maninose n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      mechameck n • [Prob of Algonquian origin..]

      methy n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      moosemise n • [Of Algonquian origin]

      moxie n • [Perh < Algonquian base maski- (or var) “medicine”..]

      mummichog n • [Of Algonquian orig..]

      muskeg n • [CanEngl < Algonquian (Ojibway mashkig, Cree mashkek)]

      muskellunge n • [Algonquian..]

      musquash n • [Algonquian]

      namaycush n • [Algonquian..]

      nitchie n • [Algonquian..]

      pauhagen n • [Of Algonquian origin]

      pecan n • [Algonquian]

      pegging awl n • [..perh, if..of Algonquian origin, a folk-etym]

      pegmonk n • [..-monk of Algonquian origin (cf Ojibwa..)..]

      pekan n • [Algonquian..]

      persimmon n • [Of Algonquian origin]

      pishaug n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      pocan n • [Algonquian]

      pocosin n • [Algonquian]

      Podunk n • [..appar from an Algonquian place name..]

      poke n3 1 • [Algonquian; cf pocan, puccoon] (MAP)

      pokelogan n • [Algonquian]

      poke of moonshine n • [..a folk-etym from an unidentified Algonquian word..]

      pone n • [Algonquian]

      pooquaw n • [From the same Algonquian source as quahog; see quot 1910]

      powwow n • [Of Algonquian origin..]

      puccoon n • [Algonquian; see quot 1910 at 1 below]

      pung n • [Abbr for earlier tom pung, of Algonquian origin..] (MAP)

      quahog n • [Algonquian..]

      samp n • [Of Algonquian origin; cf Narraganset nasaump “softened by water”]

      sannup n • [Algonquian; Narraganset sannop, Abnaki senanbe a married male member of the community]

      saskatoon n • [Of Algonquian orig;..DCan 1810 ➝]

      seapoose n • [Partial folk-etym of an Algonquian word; cf Delaware sepus..]

      supawn n • [Amer Du sapaen boiled corn meal < Algonquian; cf Natick saupaun softened by water]

      terrapin n, v • [Algonquian]

      torshent n • [Of Algonquian orig..]

      torup n • [Prob of Algonquian orig]

      tumpline n • [Of Algonquian orig..]

      wamp n1 • [Prob of Algonquian orig (cf Narragansett wompi white)..]

      wampee n • [..eastern Algonquian langs of NEng and Quebec.)]

      wanigan n • [Prob of Algonquian orig..but the precise source has not been determined.]

      wapato n • [..perh of Algonquian orig]

      wickup n1 • [From an Algonquian lang..]

Allegheny Mountains

      fallfish n • chiefly east of Allegheny Mts

      lick n 8 • chiefly Allegheny Mts

American Dutch See Dutch, American

American French See French, American

American Indian; Indian

      alewife n • [..once thought to be derived from an AmInd term..]

      appola n • [..occas considered an Indian loan, is prob infl by Span a palo on a stick]

      arivipa n • [Prob Arivaipa the San Carlos Indian people]

      atamasco (lily) n • [Amer Ind attamusco prob related to Algonquian misk red..]

      awendaw n • [Prob AmInd..]

      cui-ui n • [AmInd]

      dowitch n • [AmInd..]

      gopher n1 1a • [Perh abbr for magofer, poss of AmInd origin] (MAP)

      magofer n • [..perh of Afr or AmInd origin..]

      maque chou(x) n • [LaFr; perh of AmInd origin]

      moccasin n 1 • [Appar from moccasin shoe, of AmInd origin..]

      ree corn n • [Ree var of Arikara an Amer Ind tribe noted for growing this variety of corn]

      scobolotch n • [Appar AmInd]

      sieva bean n • [Sewee an Amer Ind tribe that formerly lived along the Santee River in South Carolina]

      spoonhunt n • [Prob folk-etym for some AmInd term]

      wahoo n1 • [Prob adaptation of one or more AmInd names..]

      wampee n • [Prob of AmInd orig,...]

      wankapin n • [..a borrowing from an AmInd language of eastern Virginia..]

      wickiup n • [In var AmInd langs, e.g., Sac, Fox, and Kickapoo, wikiyap..]

American Portuguese See Portuguese, American

American Spanish See Spanish, American

Amish

      Amish preaching soup n • PA, OH, and other Amish settlement areas

      gay adj 1 • Among Quakers, Amish, and other religious groups

      mite v • among Amish

Anglo-Irish See Ireland; Irish

aphetic

      acquaintun ppl adj • Also aphet quaintun

      allot v • now usu aphet: see lot v

      allow v • often aphet ’low

      along adv • Also aphet ’long

      along of prep • Also aphet ’long of

      aluminum n (pronc) • freq aphet |ˈlumənəm|

      amongst (hands of) them pron • Also aphet ’mongst ~

      another adj • aphet nother, nothuh, nuder, nuther

      appaloosa n1 • also..aphet

      appearently adv • aphet ’pearently

      appoint v • Also aphet ’pint

      arichtocrat n • also aphet richtocrat

      asafetida n (pronc) • aphet |ˈfɪdɪti|

      asparagus n • [..aphet forms were the earliest in English..]

      athwartships (of) adv • Also aphet ’thwartships

      avast v • often aphet vast

      banana n (pronc) • aphet |ˈnænɚ, ˈnænə|

      bang n1 • [Aphet form of shebang]

      because conj • aphet forms

      before-day n • aphet forms fo’-day, fore-day (MAP)

      bide v • [Aphet form of abide]

      blige n • [Aphet form of oblige]

      boggin n • [Aphet form of toboggan..]

      brella n • [Aphet forms of umbrella]

      bundance n • [Aphet abundance]

      butt v1 • [Aphet]

      butting-line n • [Aphet form of abutting + line boundary]

      Cajun n1 • [Alter of ’Cadian, aphet form of Acadian..]

      catty-cross adv • [Alter of cater- + aphet form of across]

      cease v2 • [Aphet form of decease]

      'ceitful adj • [Aphet form of deceitful]

      ’cep(t) v • [Aphet form of accept, except]

      chief n2 • [Aphet form of kerchief]

      climated adj • [Aphet for acclimated]

      coon n1 • [Aphet form of raccoon]

      crost adv, prep • [Aphet form of across + excr t]

      crute up v phr • [..perh aphet form of recruit]

      curious ointment n • [Folk-etym for aphet form of mercurous]

      cute adj • [Aphet form of acute]

      dobe n • [Aphet forms of adobe]

      dress v 6 • [..Perh simply aphet form of address rather than a relic]

      elastic (band) n • Aphet forms lastic and, by metath, laskit

      enduring adj • Also aphet durin

      enough adj, adv, n (pronc) • freq aphet |nʌf|

      excusing prep • freq aphet scusin, skusin

      expect v (pronc) • aphet |spɛk(t)| (MAP)

      faunce v • [Prob < vaunce, obs aphet var of advance v]

      fay n • [Aphet form of ofay]

      fen exclam • [Aphet varr of defend forbid, or of defense]

      fend v • [Aphet forms of defend]

      fess v1 • [Aphet forms of confess]

      fess v2 • [Aphet form of profess]

      fore prep • [OE fore; now often felt as aphet form of before]

      fraid adj • [Aphet form of afraid]

      fused ppl adj • [Aphet var of confused]

      gage v • [Aphet form of engage]

      gal ’bacco n • [gal girl + aphet form of tobacco]

      ganser n • [Aphet form of merganser]

      gin conj2 • [Scots, nEngl dial; aphet forms of again..]

      gin prep • [Scots dial; aphet form of again]

      ginner n1 • [Aphet form of beginner..]

      havance n2 • [Aphetic form of behave..]

      have v3 • [Aphet form of behave]

      ’havishness n • [Aphet forms of behavishness]

      head of prep • [Aphet form of ahead of]

      hind prep • [Aphet varr of behind]

      hystericky adj • aphet form ’stericky

      identical adj • Also aphet ’denticul, dentikul

      in under prep phr • Also aphet nunder

      jellico weed n • [Aphet forms of angelica]

      jester n • [Prob aphet for digester..]

      laxed ppl adj • [..perh erron for prolapsed or aphet form of relaxed]

      ’ligion n • [Aphet forms of religion..]

      macadamize v • aphet forms acadami(z)ed, cadamized

      macadamy n • Also aphet cadamy

      miration n • [Aphet form of admiration]

      molasses n (pronc) • freq aphet |ˈlæsɪz, -ɪs|

      mosquito n1 (pronc) • aphet |ˈskitɚ| 

      muda grass n • [Aphet forms of Bermuda grass]

      musquash n • Also aphet squash

      no-count adj • [Aphet..] (MAP)

      noculate v • [Aphet form of inoculate..]

      oblige v • aphet bleedged, blee(d)st, bleedzed, bleege(d), bleeze, blidge(d), blige

      oblige v (pronc) • aphet |bli|

      occasion n, v • Also aphet form ’casion

      otie n • [Aphet form of coyote n pronc |̩kaɪˈ(j)oti|]

      partment n • [Aphet form of apartment..]

      pear v • [ME.. aphet form of aperen to appear..]

      perhaps adv • aphet ’haps

      persimmon n • Also aphet ’simmern, ’simmon

      Piscopal(ian) adj,n • [Aphet forms of Episcopal(ian)]

      preserve n • aphet sarve

      Rastus n1 • [Aphet form of Erastus]

      re- pref • [Prob..a conscious attempt to “correct” a habitual aphet form]

      relievo n • aphet lievo

      remembrance n • Also aphet ’memb(r)ance, ’membunce

      return thanks v phr • Also aphet ’turn thanks

      ruction n • [..perh altered aphet form of insurrection]

      sage orange n • [Aphet form of Osage orange]

      sang n • [Aphet forms of ginseng..]

      scorch v2 • [Perh folk-etym from aphet ’scort..]

      scovy n • [Aphet forms of muscovy]

      seeny n1 • [Aphet form of cassena]

      sequia n • [Aphet forms of acequia]

      sides adv, prep • [Aphet form of besides..]

      'sociate v • [Aphet form of associate]

      souvian n • [Aphet for varsouviana var of varsoviana..]

      sparagus n • [Aphet forms of asparagus..]

      splanify v • [Aphet var of explanify]

      'spute v • [Aphet form of dispute..]

      squeeze v • Rarely aphet queeze

      stemper n • [Aphet forms of distemper]

      stroy v, ppl adj • [Aphet forms of destroy(ed)]

      struction n • [Aphet forms of construction, destruction]

      stuboy exclam, v • [Prob aphet forms of hist-a-boy..]

      tautog n • aphet tog

      tobacco n A1 (pronc) • aphet |ˈbækə(r), ˈbæko|

      tobacco n A2 (pronc) • aphet |ˈbæki|

      toboggan n 1 • aphet boggan, boggin

      tomato n A4 (pronc) • |ˈmeto, ˈmetə(r)| and other aphet varr

      tucket corn n • [Appar aphet form of Nantucket, Massachusetts]

      ticular n, adj • [Aphet forms of particular]

      umbrella n A4 • [Aphet forms]

      venture n B • [Aphet]

apocope

      fertilize n • [By apocope] (MAP)

      fur n2 • [Engl dial; by apoc from furrow]

      Port n • [By apocope from Portuguese]

      purify n • [By apocope from purifier]

Appalachians

      Adam’s off-ox n 1 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      against conj C1 • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      alleluia n • chiefly sAppalachians

      all is adv phr • chiefly NEng, Appalachians

      all’s out('s) (come) in free exclam • chiefly west of Appalachian Mts (MAP)

      always-ago adv • sAppalachians

      always-ago n • sAppalachians

      Antony-over n, exclam • chiefly sAppalachians (MAP)

      antymire n • chiefly N Atl, C Atl, sAppalachians

      asarabacca n • now prob relic in Appalachians or obs

      awful adj 2 • sAppalachians

      baby buggy n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      backset n 1b • esp Appalachians

      backstick n • chiefly sAppalachians, Gulf States (MAP)

      bad adj B4 • chiefly Appalachians, esp wNC, eTN

      bad disease n • chiefly sAppalachians

      baking powders n • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      bald n • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      bardy grease n • sAppalachians

      bat v3 • sAppalachians

      bayou n B3 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      be v A2 (pronc) • esp sAppalachians

      beal v • chiefly Appalachians

      bealed ppl adj • chiefly Appalachians, esp wPA (MAP)

      bealing n • formerly more widespread, now chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      bean stringing n • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eKY

      beer n • chiefly sAppalachians

      blowing viper n • chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      boomer n1 1 • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eTN, wNC

      boss-man n 1 • chiefly Sth, sAppalachians (MAP)

      briggity adj • chiefly sAppalachians

      brogue v • chiefly sAppalachians

      bubbybush n • sAppalachians

      buck n1 2g • scattered west of Appalachians (MAP)

      buck n1 3c • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      buckwheat cake n • chiefly Gt Lakes, Appalachians (MAP)

      budget n 1 • chiefly Appalachians

      bunty n • chiefly Appalachians

      bussy n • chiefly sAppalachians

      butt n2 • esp sAppalachians

      buttercup n 4 • esp sAppalachians

      caramel n (pronc) • in Midl, esp west of Appalachians

      chance n (pronc) • esp sAppalachians

      change v1 • chiefly Sth, sAppalachians (MAP)

      check n2 • Appalachians

      child-fetching vbl n • sAppalachians

      club fist n • esp Appalachians

      cold nose n • sAppalachians

      contrarious adj • chiefly sAppalachians

      coon root n • chiefly sAppalachians

      cooter v 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      cottonwood n 1 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      county site n • chiefly sAppalachians

      court v • chiefly sAppalachians

      crawdad n 1 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      cress n • chiefly Appalachians, esp wVA

      cuckold v • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      cuckold v (pronc) • chiefly sAppalachians

      dew poison n • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians 

      dib n2 • sAppalachians

      diddle n2 • chiefly sAppalachians

      discomfit v • chiefly sAppalachians

      disregardless adj, adv • chiefly sAppalachians

      ditch line n • chiefly sAppalachians

      divinity n • esp west of Appalachians (MAP)

      doctor medicine n • sAppalachians

      dog hobble n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      doney n2 • chiefly sAppalachians

      double v 4a • sAppalachians

      double and twist v phr 1 • sAppalachians

      dough beater n • sAppalachians

      down-go n 1 • sAppalachians

      draft n1 B1 • chiefly Appalachians

      draft n1 B2 • chiefly Appalachians

      dram v1 • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      drindle v • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      drop off v phr 1 • esp sAppalachians

      dulcimer n • formerly Appalachians, now widely recognized

      Dutch lunch n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      easing powder n • sAppalachians

      eating table n • chiefly sAppalachians

      edzact v • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      endurable adj • esp sAppalachians

      -es suff1 1a • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      -es suff1 3a • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      ethyl n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP and Map Section)

      everly adv • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      everwhat pron • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      everwhen conj, adv • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      everwhere conj, adv1 • esp sAppalachians

      everwhich adj, pron • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      everwho pron • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      fad die exclam • sAppalachians

      fall grape n • chiefly sAppalachians

      farewell-summer n 1 • chiefly cAppalachians

      feist v • sAppalachians

      filth n • sAppalachians, esp WV

      fire boss n • Appalachians, West

      firedog n • scattered, but esp freq sAppalachians, S Atl, Gulf States (MAP)

      flake n2 • sAppalachians

      flannel cake n • chiefly Appalachians (MAP and Map Section)

      flicker n4 • sAppalachians

      flux n • chiefly sAppalachians, Lower Missip Valley (MAP)

      foot n C3 • chiefly sAppalachians

      foreign adj (pronc) • esp sAppalachians

      four-o’clock n 5 • sAppalachians

      freeseed n • esp Appalachians (MAP)

      galak v • Appalachians

      gant-lot n • chiefly Appalachians

      gap n1 1 • widespread, but esp Appalachians (MAP)

      gaum v1 1 • formerly widespread, now chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      gaumy adj1 1 • scattered, but esp Appalachians (MAP)

      gee-haw whimm(e)y-diddle n • sAppalachians, esp wNC

      generation n • chiefly Appalachians

      gin conj1 • chiefly Appalachians

      give-out n • esp sAppalachians

      go out to themselves v phr • Appalachians

      gorge n1 • scattered, but chiefly NEast, Appalachians, Gt Lakes, SW (MAP)

      grave rock n • chiefly Appalachians

      green v 2 • sAppalachians

      green onion n 1 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP and Map Section)

      grist n • esp Appalachians

      groundhog n 6 • sAppalachians

      groundhog n 7 • sAppalachians

      guitar n (pronc) • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp Appalachians

      gum n2 3b • chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      gum n2 3c • esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      gum n2 3d • esp Appalachians

      gunny sack n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP and Map Section)

      hain’t v • chiefly NEast, Sth, S Midl, esp Appalachians

      half-runner bean n • chiefly sAppalachians (MAP)

      hand going adv phr • sAppalachians

      handily adv • sAppalachians

      hantle n • chiefly sAppalachians

      happy pappy n • Appalachians

      hardness n • chiefly Appalachians

      hate n • chiefly Appalachians, Ohio Valley

      hateful n • Ozarks, sAppalachians

      heap n 2 • esp nAppalachians, CT (MAP)

      hear v A2c • Sth, S Midl, esp Appalachians

      hearth rock n • chiefly Appalachians

      hearts-a-bustin’-with-love n • chiefly sAppalachians

      hell n 1 • esp sAppalachians

      hell’s banjer intj • sAppalachians

      hillside plow n • chiefly Appalachians, sOH (MAP)

      hog rifle n 1 • sAppalachians

      hole v1 1 • esp sAppalachians

      hollow n1, adj (pronc) • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      hollow n1 B1a • esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      hollow n1 B4 • sAppalachians

      horn n 8b • sAppalachians

      horsethrowed past ppl, ppl adj • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      house n B1a • sAppalachians, esp KY, TN

      house pattern n • sAppalachians

      hovel n 1a • esp NEng, sAppalachians

      how conj • sAppalachians

      hudder n • esp Appalachians (MAP)

      hull-gull n • S Midl, esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      hurricane n A2b • chiefly Appalachians, Mid and S Atl

      husband-high adj • esp Appalachians, Ozarks

      hush v B1 • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp Appalachians

      in reason adv phr • sAppalachians

      ivy n 4 • chiefly Appalachians, sNEng

      jag n2 1c • chiefly Midl, esp sAppalachians

      jape v • esp sAppalachians

      jay v2 • Appalachians

      jay grab n • Appalachians

      jay hole n • Appalachians

      judgmatically adv • sAppalachians

      kick v B1 • chiefly sAppalachians, S Atl (MAP)

      kick v B2 • scattered, but chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      kindly adv • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      knob n 1 • widespread, but more freq N Cent, Appalachians (MAP)

      knowing n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      ladle n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      lamp oil n 1 • scattered, but esp Appalachians (MAP)

      lap v2 • esp sAppalachians, TX

      lashhorn n • Appalachians

      lasty adj • chiefly Appalachians, S Midl

      laurel n 2 • chiefly Atlantic, Appalachians

      laurel n 3 • chiefly sAppalachians, esp NC

      lead n 3 • sAppalachians

      least adj • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      leather breeches n pl 1 • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      lettuce saxifrage n • chiefly Appalachians

      lie out v phr 2 • Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians, GA, SC (MAP)

      light v2 2 • scattered, but esp S Atl, sAppalachians (MAP)

      linguister n • chiefly sAppalachians

      list n 2 • chiefly sAppalachians

      liver-grown adj • chiefly sAppalachians, PA

      loafer v • chiefly sAppalachians (MAP)

      main adv • chiefly sAppalachians

      man-power v • esp sAppalachians

      mason wasp n • chiefly Mid Atl, sAppalachians (MAP)

      master adv • chiefly ME, sAppalachians

      mattock n • widespread, but more freq Appalachians (MAP)

      meadow n (pronc) • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks, occas NEng

      Melungeon n • sAppalachians, esp eTN

      milk gap n • chiefly sAppalachians

      molasses making n • sAppalachians

      moldwarp n • esp sAppalachians

      mort n • chiefly sAppalachians

      mortal adv • esp sAppalachians, NEng

      mother, may I n • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      mountain balsam n 2 • sAppalachians

      mountain boomer n 5 • chiefly sAppalachians

      mountaineer n • scattered, but chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      mountain ivy n • chiefly sAppalachians, esp VA

      mountain lettuce n • chiefly Appalachians

      mow hole n • esp Appalachians, PA, NJ (MAP)

      mowing blade n • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians (MAP)

      much adj 2 • chiefly sAppalachians

      name v • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      nigger baby n 3 • chiefly west of Appalachians (MAP)

      nigger pine n 1 • chiefly C and Mid Atl, sAppalachians

      October bean n • chiefly sAppalachians, IN (MAP)

      of prep Bb • esp Appalachians, Lower Missip Valley, SW (MAP)

      offside horse n • scattered, but esp nAppalachians (MAP)

      old woman is picking her geese, the phr • esp Appalachians

      one more adj phr • sAppalachians

      open peach n • chiefly sAppalachians, Mid Atl (MAP)

      oxeye daisy n 2 • chiefly NEast, N Cent, sAppalachians

      pack v 1 • chiefly West, Missip Valley, sAppalachians (MAP)

      pack v 2c • sAppalachians

      packsaddle worm n • esp sAppalachians (MAP)

      panther n A1 (pronc) • scattered, but more freq Appalachians, Inland Sth (MAP)

      pea hulling n • sAppalachians

      penitentiary v • sAppalachians

      pharaoh n • chiefly sAppalachians

      pheasant n 1a • chiefly Midl, esp PA, sAppalachians

      pig n1 B15 • esp sAppalachians

      Plott hound n • sAppalachians

      point-blank adv, adj A3 (pronc) • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eKY

      point-blank adv B • S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      point-blank adv,adj A2 (pronc) • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      point-blank adv,adj A4 • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eKY

      poke n1 1a • chiefly Midl, esp Appalachians (MAP)

      poking stick n • sAppalachians

      pone n 3a • chiefly sAppalachians

      popskull n • chiefly sAppalachians

      pot-tail n • sAppalachians

      pounding mill n b • chiefly sAppalachians

      powder n B • chiefly NEast, N Cent, Appalachians (MAP)

      pretty n C1a • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      pretty girls’ station n • esp sAppalachians

      proffer v • esp sAppalachians

      proof vial n • esp sAppalachians

      public work n • chiefly sAppalachians

      quack grass n 1 • chiefly Inland Nth, N Midl, Appalachians (MAP)

      quillwort n 2 • esp Appalachians

      rainbird n 1c • chiefly Midl, esp Appalachians (MAP)

      rawhide v 6 • sAppalachians

      redd v 3c • esp Appalachians

      red-neck n 5 • Appalachians

      ribey adj • sAppalachians, esp WV

      ridy-horse n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      ridy-horse n 2 • chiefly Sth, sAppalachians

      ridy-horse n 3 • esp Sth, sAppalachians

      rifle v, n2 • sAppalachians

      rifle gun n • now chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      rimption n • chiefly Appalachians

      ripshin n • Appalachians

      rock cliff n • chiefly sAppalachians

      rock house n 1 • Appalachians, Ozarks

      rooster n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      roughness n 1 • Sth, S Midl, esp Appalachians

      ruling day n • sAppalachians

      run v B7 • sAppalachians

      running go n • sAppalachians

      salad pea n • chiefly sAppalachians

      sang v1 • esp sAppalachians

      sang hoe n • esp sAppalachians

      sang-sign n • sAppalachians

      sanko v • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      saucer v C • esp sAppalachians

      sawmill gravy n • chiefly sAppalachians

      scandalous adv B • esp sAppalachians

      scenery n B1 • esp sAppalachians

      *schottische n • widespread exc Appalachians, Mid and S Atl (MAP)

      scout v • sAppalachians

      scribe n • esp Appalachians, Ozarks

      serenade n • chiefly Appalachians, Atlantic exc sNEng (MAP)

      set-along adj • chiefly Appalachians

      setback n 2 • chiefly SE, Mid Atl, Appalachians, CT (MAP)

      several adj, n, pron C • esp Appalachians, Ozarks

      severe adj • chiefly sAppalachians

      shagbark hickory n • chiefly NEng, N Cent, sAppalachians (MAP)

      shammock v • chiefly sAppalachians

      sheep mint n • esp sAppalachians

      short dog n • esp sAppalachians

      shuck bean n • chiefly sAppalachians

      shut-in n • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      si-godlin adj, adv • esp Appalachians

      si-gogglin adj, adv • esp sAppalachians

      singlings n • chiefly sAppalachians

      sixty n • esp sAppalachians

      skull orchard n • chiefly Appalachians, SE (MAP)

      sled ride v phr • esp wPA, eIN, sAppalachians (MAP)

      sleight n • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      slow John n • sAppalachians

      smolick v • Appalachians

      snake n 1b • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians (MAP)

      snub v2 • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      snurl n • S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      Snyder's pup n • sAppalachians

      sods n pl • Appalachians

      soft peach n • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      song-ballad n • sAppalachians, Ozarks (MAP)

      sonker n • esp sAppalachians

      sourwood n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      spend v B2 • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      spicewood n 1 • now chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      spignet n • scattered, but esp sAppalachians

      splunge v, n • Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      sprig n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      springhouse n • formerly widespread, now chiefly Midl, Sth, esp Appalachians (MAP)

      spud v 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      stack cake n • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      staggerweed n 1 • chiefly sAppalachians, esp wVA

      star root n 1 • esp sAppalachians

      start v 3 • chiefly sAppalachians

      stay-place n • chiefly sAppalachians

      steady bee n • esp sAppalachians

      stick bait n • sAppalachians

      stickweed n • esp sAppalachians

      still beer n • chiefly sAppalachians

      stinking willie n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      stir-off n • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eKY

      stog v • sAppalachians

      stool n 1 • sAppalachians

      store v • esp C Atl, sAppalachians

      stout adj 3 • west of Appalachians (MAP)

      streaked meat n • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians (MAP)

      stretch n, v (pronc) • esp sAppalachians |stritʃ|

      striped snake n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      strong v C1 • sAppalachians

      stub up v phr • sAppalachians

      study v1 3 • esp sAppalachians

      studyment n 1 • sAppalachians

      stump water n 1b • chiefly Inland Sth, sAppalachians (MAP)

      such pron B1 • sAppalachians

      sugan n 3 • chiefly sAppalachians

      sugar orchard n • chiefly nNEng, sAppalachians (MAP)

      sugar water n • chiefly sAppalachians, IN, OH, PA

      sugar whiskey n • chiefly sAppalachians

      sulter v • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      sun-ball n • chiefly sAppalachians, Ozarks

      surround v • chiefly sAppalachians

      swarp v • chiefly sAppalachians

      swarp n • sAppalachians

      swear v C1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      swingletree n • chiefly C and S Atl, Appalachians (MAP)

      swoo exclam • scattered, but esp PaGer area, sAppalachians

      sword n • chiefly sAppalachians swoard; also swode

      take v B5 • chiefly Appalachians, esp KY

      tale-idle n • esp sAppalachians

      Tally n • esp sAppalachians

      tangle-gut n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      tap hand n • chiefly sAppalachians

      ted v • chiefly NEast, N Cent, cAppalachians (MAP)

      tedder n • chiefly NEast, N Cent, cAppalachians (MAP)

      they-all pron • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      they-uns pron • esp sAppalachians

      through n 2 • sAppalachians

      throw the hatchet v phr • esp sAppalachians

      thump barrel n • chiefly sAppalachians

      thunder dog n • sAppalachians

      tide n • chiefly sAppalachians

      time n C3 • sAppalachians

      time about adv phr • chiefly S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      to prep B15 • Gulf States, sAppalachians

      tohind prep, adv • esp sAppalachians

      tooth jumper n • sAppalachians, Ozarks

      top n 1 • sAppalachians

      traffic v • esp sAppalachians

      tread v 2 • chiefly Ozarks, sAppalachians

      tub mill n • esp sAppalachians

      turkey mustard n • sAppalachians

      turkey-tail v • sAppalachians

      tush n A1 (pronc) • chiefly SE, sAppalachians (MAP)

      tutor v • esp sAppalachians, Ozarks

      twice out of sight adj phr • sAppalachians

      twistification n • sAppalachians, GA, AL

      twitchet n 1 • chiefly Mid Atl, sAppalachians

      unfitten adj • esp sAppalachians

      untelling ppl adj 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      up in prep phr • chiefly sAppalachians

      upscuddle n • chiefly sAppalachians

      wait on the table v phr • sAppalachians

      weed n • now chiefly sAppalachians

      where pron B • sAppalachians

      whimmy-diddle n • chiefly sAppalachians

      whistle pig n 1 • chiefly Appalachians (MAP)

      white ash n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      white-eye v 1 • chiefly sAppalachians, esp eKY

      white-eyed adj 1 • chiefly sAppalachians

      wild-hog v phr • sAppalachians

      wingle v • esp sAppalachians

      wire n (pronc) • esp sAppalachians, Delmarva |wɔr|

      withouten prep, conj • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      woman n A2 (pronc) • esp sAppalachians, C Atl

      wood hick n • Appalachians

      wood pretty n • esp sAppalachians

      woolly head n 2 • esp sAppalachians

      work-brittle adj 2 • chiefly sAppalachians

      worm n 2 • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

      worm fence n • scattered, but chiefly C Atl, Appalachians (MAP)

      yellow patch n • sAppalachians

      yon adj, pron, adv, n • scattered, but chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp sAppalachians

Arabic

      burgoo n • [Perh Arabic burghul cracked wheat]

      cush n1 • [Of Afr orig, ult from Arabic..]

      wolf grape n • [Calque of Arabic name for a species of Solanum..]

Arawak

      cunner n2 • [Perh by coalescence of canoe, ult from Arawak, with Gullah ˈ kunu, ult Afr..]

archaic; archaism (See also historic; obsolete; old-fashioned)

      abear v • old-fash or arch

      Abe Lincoln War n • arch or obs

      about adv C • arch

      abouten prep • arch

      abscond v tr • arch

      adays adv • arch

      admire v A • arch or old-fash

      adone intj • arch

      alcaldia n • arch or old-fash

      alchemy n • arch

      almud n • arch

      alow and aloft adv phr • arch

      a many quasi-n • arch

      ambush v • arch

      amint n • arch

      and conj B1 • arch or old-fash

      andiron n • Arch spp anderens, and irons

      anights adv • arch or obs

      antifogmatic(k) n • arch

      artetu n • obs or arch

      author n B • arch

      back-out n • old-fash or arch

      backside n 1 • arch

      ball off v phr • arch

      batoon n • [batoon, arch var of baton]

      be v B5c(1) • old-fash or arch

      be v C2c • old-fash or arch

      beardy man n • arch

      beaver n 2 • arch

      bed rug n • arch

      belated ppl adj • arch

      belike v • arch

      belly-shot adj • arch

      bibble v • arch

      bird’s-egging n • arch

      boon n2 • Arch pronc for bone

      brief adj1 • arch

      brief adj1 2 • arch

      broke of one's rest adj • arch

      brute beast n • arch

      burn v A2 • arch brent

      burning fluid n • arch

      caboose n1 1 • arch or obs

      cad n • arch or old-fash

      campoody n • arch

      cape merchant n • arch

      capsheaf n 2 • arch

      Carolina potato n • arch

      caulker n • arch

      center shot n 1 • arch

      cess n • arch

      chestnutty adj • arch

      chew one’s tobacco v phr 1 • arch

      child n B1 • arch

      chime n • arch

      chirk adj • arch

      chokecherry n • Arch spp chockcherry, choackcherry

      chokedog n • Arch sp choakdog

      chop n1 2 • arch

      Christmas box n • arch or obs

      Christyde n • arch or obs

      circumstance n B1 • arch or old-fash

      claggy adj • arch

      clash n • arch

      clevel n • arch or obs

      clever adj 2 • arch

      cleverly adv 1 • arch or obs

      clew n2 • arch or old-fash

      climb v 2c • clomben (arch)

      cling v • arch or obs clang, clinged

      cluff v • arch

      coast, on the adv phr • arch

      cod n1 2 • arch

      come v B5 • [Survival of arch subjunc constr..]

      commissionate v • arch

      concern v • Pronc-spp concarn, consarn,..(reflecting archaic or old-fash varr)

      conch n 2 • arch

      confectionary n 1 • arch

      copsil n • arch

      cordwinder n • arch

      corking-pin n • arch

      corrupted ppl adj 1 • arch

      cost v B • arch

      count v B • arch

      crazy adj 1 • arch

      critter n B5 • arch

      cut-down n 1 • arch

      cutty pipe n • arch

      daggly adj • arch

      dare v A2 • [..archaic past durst..archaic 2nd sg darst..]

      desireful adj • arch

      dig v1 B2 • arch

      digger n 1 • arch

      dip toast n • arch

      dirt n 1 • arch

      do v C1b • arch

      do v C3 • This archaic construction survives in mod stdE with the forms had,..

      dobber n1 1 • arch

      doctor stuff n • arch

      dormant window n • arch

      dosh n • arch

      double sleigh n • Arch spp double slay, ~ sley

      drink v B1 • arch

      drinky adj • arch

      driveway n 1 • arch

      driveway n 2 • arch

      dun v • arch

      dunfish n • arch

      east, about adj, adv phr • arch

      ebony n 1 • arch

      end on adv phr • arch

      errand n B • arch

      eyeable adj • arch

      fainty adj 3 • arch

      faith you exclam • arch

      familious adj • esp freq among Black speakers; arch

      fat n1 1 • arch

      feature n • arch

      fip n • arch

      firefang v • arch

      flea v • [Arch and Engl dial varr of flay]

      flower-de-luce n • arch

      fonda n • arch

      forthputting ppl adj • arch

      forthputting vbl n • arch

      frowy adj1 1 • arch

      full chisel adv phr • arch

      fuzzled ppl adj • arch

      gant adj • [Arch and dial Engl pronc-spp for gaunt..]

      gashly adj • arch

      gleed n • arch

      graip n • arch

      grandma’s darning needle n • arch

      great n B1 • arch

      gunter n • arch

      gurgle v 2 • arch

      gush n B1 • arch

      hang up v phr 2 • arch

      hardpan n 2 • arch

      hardtack n 2 • arch

      hard times n 1 • arch

      he pron 6 • arch

      help v A2c • arch

      hen-hussy n 1 • arch

      here adv B1 • arch

      hereaway adv • arch

      hike v 5 • arch

      hinder adj • arch

      hinny n • arch

      hoddy-doddy n • arch

      hog age n • prob arch

      hold v A2b • arch

      hold v A3b • arch holden

      home n, exclam, v, adv • arch sp hom

      Hoosier cake n • arch

      Hope n • arch

      hosen n pl • arch

      housell adj • arch

      housen n1 2 • arch

      howsoever adv • arch

      humble adj, v • arch sp ombel

      hundred n, adj A4 (pronc) • arch sp hunard

      hunkersliding vbl n • arch

      husk n B4c • arch

      Indian wheat n 1 • arch

      into prep B2 • arch

      junk bottle n • arch

      kahili n • Arch spp kahile, kahiri

      kringle n • [Prob primarily < Dan kringle (also.. arch kringel)]

      ladies’ twist n • arch

      ladrone n • arch

      lawks intj • arch

      lax n • arch

      least conj • [Arch and Scots dial var of lest]

      longsome adj • [..perh infl by arch or Brit dial longsome long, tedious]

      look v B2 • arch

      mislist v • arch

      morning, in the adv phr • arch

      nation adj • arch

      nation adv • arch

      nature n B3 • arch

      nature n B4 • arch

      netop n • arch

      nigger n1 • arch spp nager, ne(a)ger, neeger, negar, negur, niegor, niger

      nocake n • arch

      oldermost adj • arch or obs

      parsnip n • Arch sp parsnep

      politicianer n • arch

      pot n 5 • arch

      puccoon n • for arch spp see quots

      pumpknot n • [Etym uncert; cf arch pumple pimple and knot n1 2a]

      purse n1 • arch |pʌs|

      rattleran(d) n • arch

      relievo n • [..Ult from arch, chiefly Scots dial relieve to release, rescue]

      rise v B2 • arch

      Sabbath-day n • arch

      shaw n • arch

      shitepoke n • [shite arch var of shit + poke bag;..]

      sing n • among Black speakers; arch

      slowful adj • some currency in 19th cent literary contexts..as a conscious archaism

      sog n • arch

      some adj • arch

      sorry adj • arch spp sorrow, surrow

      squail v • arch

      squander v • [Arch or dial in Brit Engl; cf ..EDD]

      squat v • arch

      stancheous adj • [Abbrs for arch Scots dial substantious]

      starve v 1 • arch

      swankey n 2 • arch

      tamale n1 • Arch spp tamaule, tamolly, tomale (MAP)

      tarry v • arch

      tarve v • arch

      tarve n • arch

      teeter v • [Varr of arch and Brit dial titter to move unsteadily, totter..]

      teeter-totter n • [Varr of arch and Brit dial titter-totter..]

      topping adj • arch

      torshent n • arch

      town ho exclam • arch

      trampoose v • arch

      truck n1 3 • arch

      Washington eagle n • arch

      what time conj phr • [Cf arch what time at the time when, when(ever)]

      wizzen n • arch

      yellow robin n • arch

Arizona

      ajo n • AZ, CA

      angry acacia n • AZ, CA, NV

      center fire adj • West, chiefly WA to AZ

      checkered-bark juniper n • AZ, NM, TX

      covena n • AZ

      desert saltbush n • AZ

      gopher snake n 1 • chiefly West, esp CA, AZ (MAP)

      greasewood n 2f • esp AZ

      hassayampa n • AZ

      Hosteen n • NM, AZ

      niggerhead n 3a • esp AZ

      salmon n B2a(3) • esp AZ, UT

      sotol n • TX, NM, AZ

      Verde trout n • AZ

      yant n • SW, esp AZ

      zanja n • sCA, AZ

      zanjero n • sCA, AZ

Arkansas

      appaloosa n2 • chiefly Gulf States, AR, OK

      Arkansawyer n • chiefly AR and adjacent states

      ault n • esp AR

      betsy bug n • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp AR, KY

      blackland n • chiefly TX, OK, AR, LA (MAP)

      black wax n • chiefly AR, sOK and esp nTX

      bois d’arc n • chiefly TX, LA, OK, AR, TN, KY (MAP)

      bread-dough biscuit n • chiefly Nth, AR, MS (MAP)

      care v B2 • chiefly FL, MS, AR, OK, NM (MAP)

      carpet, on the adj phr • Sth, S Midl, esp NC, TX, AR (MAP)

      Catahoula hog dog n • chiefly AR, LA, TX

      gallery n • chiefly Gulf States, AR, TX (MAP)

      Georgia stock n • chiefly Gulf States, AR, OK (MAP)

      graveyard working n • esp TX, AR

      hog jaw n • chiefly TN, KY, AR

      hold v C2a • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp Gulf States, AR (MAP)

      hoodlum wagon n 2 • esp TX, OK, AR

      jimplecute n 2 • esp AR, MS, MO, TX

      Methodist pallet n • esp AR, TX

      outer road n • MO, AR

      perch n1 B3 • esp TX, LA, AR, OK

      rent house n • scattered, but esp TX, AR (MAP)

      rubboard n 2 • esp Gulf States, TX, AR

      rusty lizard n • AL, AR, GA, LA, TX

      scavenger n 1 • AR

      si-fog v • esp AR

      Siwash n 2 • esp NW, AR  

      sluice n • chiefly West, esp CA, AR

      speck-back (tick) n • AL, AR, LA, TX

      stick bean n • esp Inland Sth, AR (MAP)

      straddle board n 2 • chiefly AR, MO

      suggin n2 • AR

      tear the bone out v phr • esp AR (MAP)

      yonder adv B2 • esp Gulf States, AR, GA

assimilated; assimilation

      all-fired adv • Also (by assim of final [d]) all-fire

      beef from bull’s foot, not to know v phr • [Prob alter of B from (a) bull’s foot, not to know by assim of f]

      burn v A2 • occas assim to burn

      child n A2 (pronc) • assim

      corfish n • [Prob assim of corft, corved ppl adj, preserved in salt, + fish..]

      cotted cheese n • [Assim of cottage cheese]

      cramberry n • [By assim from cranberry]

      dare v A3 • [..darse, das(s) have evid lost the final -t by assim to the following to.]

      dow stick n • [Prob assim from dowse stick]

      first form thing n • [Perh from first form ..(with assim of the m in form to n before th)]

      foal v A3 • rarely foal (prob by assim of final cons cluster)

      gank-gutted adj • [By assim from gant-gutted]

      glass n • [The change of gl > dl by assimilation is common in Engl..dial..]

      gunboat n 1 • also, by assim, gumboat

      help v A • Cf Pronc Intro 3.II.27 with ref to assimilation of /l/

      hundred n, adj A4 • [By metath and assim]

      hundred n, adj A5 • [By metath, assim and devoicing of final consonant]

      jerk v2 • ppl adj jerked, by assim jerk, preserved in this way

      joe bacon n • [Prob assim form of jowl]

      lampblack n • Pronc-sp, by assim, lam black

      oblige v (pronc) • assim |(ə)ˈbli| (for obliged)

      pave road n • [..perh assim pronc of paved road]

      Porgy n2 • [By syncope and assim from Portuguese..]

      raft n • [Prob after assim of final [t], the pl form was remodeled..]

      sassafras n • [..non-std forms show..assimilation to saxifrage.]

      shaft n 1 (pronc) • by assim, |šæf|

      sheep sour n[..Sheep shower is prob by assim..]

      sook exclam (pronc) • in..sook cow,..usu assim to |ˈs^U̩ka^U..| (MAP)

      streaked and striked adj phr • [By assim from streaked and striped]

      that out adv phr • [Prob that pronc-sp for ’thout (at without) + doubt with assim of d..]

Atlantic (See also Central Atlantic; Middle Atlantic; North Atlantic; South Atlantic)

      afterwash n • Atl

      again prep, adv, conj (pronc) • freq in Atl States, less freq elsewhere

      amen pew n • chiefly Sth and Atl States

      American wire fence n • chiefly Atl States

      angel shark n • Atlantic coast

      back v 6 • Atlantic, esp coastal NEng

      back water v phr • chiefly Nth, Atlantic

      baitfish n • chiefly Atl, esp C Atl, N Atl

      batfish n 2 • Atl coast

      bight n 1 • chiefly Atl States

      *bluegill n • widespread, but least freq in Atl and Gulf States

      blue Peter n 2 • Atlantic

      boot n1 1b • widespread, but esp Atl States, Missip Valley; scattered West

      break away v phr • esp Atl States

      *breaking plow n • widespread, exc Atlantic and West

      bud n2 1c • esp Atlantic

      buddy n 1c • chiefly Nth, N Midl, Atlantic

      bugle n 1 • chiefly Atlantic, upper Missip Valley

      butterfish n 1 • chiefly Atlantic

      cat’s-paw n 7 • chiefly Atl, esp N Atl

      cinch n1 2 • scattered, but esp NEast, Atlantic

      climb v 2b • chiefly Atl States, esp nNY, wNEng (MAP)

      commode n 4b • scattered, but esp Atl, Nth

      co-nan(nie) v phr • chiefly east of the Missip R, esp Atlantic

      conger eel n 2 • Atl coast

      congo eel n 1 • Atl coast

      corvina n a • Atl coast

      corvina n c • Atl and Gulf coasts

      country adj • chiefly Sth, Atlantic (MAP)

      *coverlet n 1 • widespread, but least freq in West and Atlantic (MAP)

      crank adj • Atlantic

      creek n1 B1 • Atlantic, esp Mid and N Atl

      crossbar n • chiefly east of Missip R, esp Atlantic

      dairy n 1 • chiefly Atlantic (MAP)

      door n B3 • esp Atlantic

      drain n1 C4 • Atlantic

      dungarees n pl • esp Atlantic (MAP)

      eel v • chiefly Atl States

      eelpot n 1 • Atlantic

      eelworm n • chiefly Atl

      English herring n • Atlantic

      *feeder n 7 • widely scattered, but less freq Atlantic

      fish hawk n 1 • widespread, but chiefly Atlantic, NW (MAP)

      fix v B7 • scattered, but chiefly Atlantic, Gt Lakes, CA (MAP)

      flatfish n 2 • Atl coast, esp NEng

      flaw n • Atl coast, esp Mid Atl

      flawy adj • Atl coast

      fluke n1 • Atlantic coast

      freshet n 2 • chiefly Atlantic, Nth (MAP)

      frypan n • chiefly Atlantic, Inland Sth, West (MAP)

      gauze shirt n • chiefly Atlantic

      grassplot n • chiefly Atlantic (MAP)

      greenhead n 3 • widespread, but esp Atlantic

      grubby n 2 • Atlantic, esp N Atl

      handiron n1 • chiefly Atlantic

      hard-shell clam n 1 • Atlantic

      *hey exclam 2 • scattered, but less freq Nth, Atlantic, West (MAP)

      *hind end n 1 • scattered, but less freq Atlantic (MAP)

      hominy n B1 • formerly widespread, now chiefly Atlantic, esp S Atl (MAP)

      horse n B7 • chiefly Atlantic, N Cent

      horse n, v (pronc) • chiefly Atlantic

      house n, v (pronc) • chiefly Atlantic, esp NEng, Mid and S Atl

      humor n • esp Atl

      hundred n, adj A1 • chiefly Atlantic, Sth, S Midl

      *hydrant n 1a • scattered, but less freq Nth, Atlantic (MAP)

      kindling wood n • scattered, but more freq Atl (MAP)

      laurel n 2 • chiefly Atlantic, Appalachians

      library n (pronc) • esp Atlantic

      main n1 • chiefly Atlantic

      make up v phr 2 • chiefly Atlantic (MAP)

      mantelpiece n 1 • chiefly Sth, S Midl, Atlantic (MAP)

      marry v (pronc) • chiefly Atlantic, Sth

      marsh hay n • chiefly Gt Lakes, Atlantic (MAP)

      *milk house n • widespread, but less freq Sth, Atlantic (MAP)

      mountain laurel n 1 • chiefly Atlantic

      mud hen n 1a • esp Atlantic

      *muley adj, n2 A1 (pronc) • widespread exc Atlantic coast (MAP)

      *muley adj, n2 A2 (pronc) • scattered, but less freq Atlantic coast, Gulf States (MAP)

      *muley adj B1 • widespread, but less freq Atlantic coast (MAP)

      northeaster n • chiefly Atlantic; also Gt Lakes (MAP)

      northwester n • chiefly Atlantic, Gulf States, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      oxeye n 1a • chiefly Atl coast

      pale fence n • chiefly Atlantic, esp PA (MAP)

      pheasant duck n • chiefly Atlantic, esp N Atl

      pig in a bag n • chiefly Atlantic (MAP)

      pop n2 1 • scattered, but esp Atlantic, Gulf States (MAP)

      pound n2 2 • Atlantic coast

      pound n2 3 • chiefly Atlantic coast

      pulled candy n • chiefly Atlantic, Sth, S Midl (MAP)

      pussley n 1a • scattered, but esp freq NEast, NCent, Atlantic (MAP)

      raw bar n • chiefly Atlantic, esp Mid Atl

      red drum n • chiefly Atl

      roach n1 1a • chiefly Atlantic

      row n 4 • chiefly Nth, Atlantic, Gulf States (MAP)

      salt-meadow grass n a • Atlantic and Gulf coasts

      scholar n • scattered, but esp Atlantic, N Cent (MAP)

      see v B2a • scattered, but chiefly Atl, esp NEast

      seesaw n 1 • chiefly Atlantic, Sth, S Midl, SW (MAP and Map Section)

      serenade n • chiefly Appalachians, Atlantic exc sNEng (MAP)

      setting room n • chiefly Atlantic, esp NEast 

      shad n 1 • chiefly Atl

      shine n 4 • scattered, but esp Atlantic, Sth, S Midl (MAP)

      *shivaree n B1 • widespread, but less freq Atlantic, Gulf States exc FL (MAP and Map Section)

      shool v • chiefly Atl, esp NEng

      silversides n 1 • chiefly Atlantic

      sneaky Pete n 1 • chiefly Atlantic (MAP)

      south-southerly n • Atlantic, esp Mid Atl

      *straight up, not to know v phr • scattered, but rare Atlantic (MAP)

      straw ride n • esp Atlantic

      striped bass n 1 • scattered, but chiefly Atlantic, Lower Missip Valley, CA (MAP)

      swamp mosquito n • chiefly Atlantic

      take v B1b • scattered, but esp Atlantic (MAP)

      thisaway adv • scattered, but more freq Atlantic, Sth, S Midl, TX (MAP)

      thoroughfare n • Atlantic

      tractor-trailer n • scattered, but more freq Atlantic (MAP and Map Section)

      *trade-last n • widespread, but less freq Atlantic (MAP)

      traffic circle n • chiefly Atlantic, Gulf States, SW(MAP)

      transformation n • chiefly Atlantic, N Cent (MAP)

      water witch n 1 • chiefly Atlantic, esp Mid Atl

      *water witch n 3 • widespread, but less freq Atlantic

      weir n (pronc) • chiefly Atlantic |wɛr, ˈwɛə(r), ˈwæə(r)|

      whistler n 3 • scattered, but esp Atlantic (MAP)

      *wiener n • widespread, but less freq Atlantic, West (MAP)

      *witching stick n • widespread, but less freq Atlantic, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      *woven wire n • widespread, but less freq Atlantic coast, Gulf States, SW, Pacific (MAP)

a name="Australian">Australian; Australian National Dictionary

      bloomer n • [Orig Austr slang: abbr for blooming error]

      gallows n 1c • [Austr Engl; AND 1847➝]

      gum tree n 3 • [AND 1789➝]

      Hughie n • [Cf OEDS HughieAustral. and N.Z. slang..”]

      killick n • Cf..AND

      mark v1 2 • [Cf AND 1883 ➝..] (MAP)

      mud-fat adj • [..cf also AND (at mud 2)]

      red gum n 2 • [AND 1788 ➝]

      saltbush n • [AND saltbush 1846 ➝]

      scarf n2 • Cf AND, DNZE

      scrub n 1 • [..chiefly Austr, NZ]

      sollaker n • [Also in Austr slang (AND sollicker 1898 ➝)..]

      soul-case n • Cf ..AND

      suckhole n 3 • Cf AND (MAP)

      tacker n • [swEngl dial; now common in Austr Engl]

      tin dog n • [Cf AND tin dog (at dog n.1 2.d) 1924 ➝..]

      unfinancial adj 1 • [Cf OED2 financial a. 2 ``Of a member in a society: That pays (his subscription)''; 1892;..common in Australia and New Zealand.]

      unfinancial adj 2 • Cf AND, DNZE (at financial)

      whirly wind n • Cf..AND

 


B 


 

 

back-formation; back-form(ed)

      acquaintun ppl adj • [Perh back-formation from acquaintance or acquainting]

      ad ax n • [ad back-formation from adz taken as pl + ax]

      adz n (pronc) • by back-formation, |æd|

      aild v tr • [Back-formation from ailded]

      airify v • [Prob back-formation from airified, but cf -ify]

      all-fire n • [Back-formation from all-fired adj or adv]

      alterated ppl adj • [..perh *alterate (back-formation from alteration) + -ed]

      antigod(d)le v • [Var of antigogle or back-formation < antigodlin]

      antigogle v • [Prob back-formation < antigoglin]

      apee n • [Back-formation from Fr épice, understood as pl..]

      appendic n • [Sg back-formation from appendix taken as pl]

      appleknock v • [Back-formation < appleknocker]

      applicate v • [Back-formation from application, perh infl by supplicate]

      arnick n • [Prob back-formation from onyx as if it were pl]

      basting big adj phr • [..back-form from baster + big]

      bay v • [Perh back-form of bait v 3 understood as past tense]

      beef n A1 • rarely, by back-formation from pl, beeve

      bock n4 • [..perh back-formation of box a blow, buffet]

      book-keep v • [Back-formation from bookkeeper]

      botherate v • [Back-formation from botheration n]

      bullace n 1 • by back-formation, bully

      charter v • [Prob back-form from chartered]

      cheese n A • hence back-formed sg chee

      Chinee n2 • [Back-formation from Chinese..]

      clodhop n • [Back-formation from clodhopper]

      clumse n • [Prob back-form < clumsy..]

      cohabitate v • [Back-formation from cohabitation]

      combinate v • [Back-formation from combination]

      confident v • [Perh back-formation from confidence v..]

      conjunct v • [Prob back-formation from conjunction]

      connip v • [Back-formation of conniption..]

      consolate v • [Prob a back-formation from consolation]

      consumpted ppl adj • [*consumpt v, back-formation from consumption]

      contage v • [Back-formation from contagious or contagion]

      convene v • [Prob back-formation from convenient]

      corn v 2 • [Back-formation from corned]

      corp n • [Back-formation from corpse, understood as pl]

      cose v • [Back-formation from cosy]

      crow n2 • [Back-formation from croze, taken as pl]

      cuckold v • |ˈkʌkəl| (by back-formation, |ˈkʌkəld| being taken as pret)

      dare v A2 • [These forms..represent..back-formation from the negative da(r)snt..]

      dare v A3 • [Back-formation from A2 above..]

      deparch v • [Back-formation from departure]

      dinge n1 • [Back-formation from dingy adj]

      dinge up v phr • [Back-formation from dingy soiled, discolored]

      distant n • [Prob back-formation from distance, analyzed as pl distants]

      diz v • [Prob back-formation from dizzy]

      dog rob v phr • [Back-formation from dog robber]

      double-head v 1 • [Back-formation from doubleheader 1]

      dowd n • [..perh a recent back-formation from dowdy..]

      dressmake v • [Back-formation from dressmaker]

      drib n • [Prob back-formation from dribble, driblet..]

      embarras n • *embarra sg (by back-formation)

      farsee v • [Perh back-formation from far-sight; prob infl by foresee]

      farth adj, adv • [Back-formations from farther, farthest, further, furthest]

      fertili n • [Back-formation from fertilize n, understood as pl]

      flinder v1 • [..perh US use is an independent back-formation from flinders 1]

      flock n • [Back-formation from phlox understood as pl]

      flommuck n • [Back-formation from flummox n, taken as pl]

      folk n B1a • [Back-formation from pl folks]

      frivol v • [Back-formation from frivolous]

      frow v • [Perh back-formation from frowy adj1]

      galak v • [Back-formation from galax, understood as pl]

      gald v • [Back-formation from galded, pleonastic past pple of gall..]

      gamle v • [Prob back-formation from gamlin stick..]

      ginger adj • [Back-formation from gingerly adv..]

      glab v • [Perh back-formation from glabber infl by gab..]

      hifalute v • [Back-form from highfalutin]

      ho n • [Back-formation from hose understood as pl..]

      hot log v • [Prob back-formation from hot logging]

      housekeep v • [Back-formation from housekeeping or housekeeper]

      husk n B7a • [Prob back-formation from husky adj robust, powerful..]

      -ie suff2 • [Prob back-formation from -ies 1]

      instant n • [..perh back-formation from instance understood as instants]

      interpretate v • [Back-formation from interpretation]

      jerk v2 • [Back-formation from jerky n2, or directly from AmSpan charquear < charqui]

      jink n3 • [Perh back-formation from jinx]

      jink v 2 • [..perh back-formation from jinx to bring bad luck upon]

      jinked ppl adj • [..perh back-formation from jinx to bring bad luck upon]

      lamentate v • [Back-formation from lamentation..]

      lant n • [Prob back-formation from lance, interpreted as lants..]

      license n 1 (pronc) • by back-formation, sg |ˈlaɪs%Un|, pronc-spp licen, lysun

      link n • [Back-formation from lynx understood as pl]

      maltee n, adj • [Back-formation from Maltese]

      mayonnaise n (pronc) • proncs |ˈmeəne, ˈmaɪneɪ| are prob back-formations from |ˈmeənez| understood as pl

      middlebuster n 1 • by back-formation, v middlebust (MAP)

      mirate v • [Back-formation from miration]

      mize v • [Back-formation from miser]

      norate v • [Prob back-formation from noration..]

      pea n2 • [Prob back-formation from..peise understood as pl]

      peeler n2 2 • [..back-formation..]

      perspirate v • [Back-formation from perspiration..]

      pinhook v • [Prob back-formation from pinhooker]

      polonay n • [Back-formation from polonaise..]

      Portuguese n, adj • back-formation based on understanding the final [-z] as a plural marker

      possum hunt v phr • [Back-formation from vbl n phr possum hunting..]

      roe v • [Perh by back-formation from roed full of roe (OED2 1611 ➝)]

      sandbakkels n • Also sandbakkelse, sandbakkel (back-formation from sandbakkels, understood as pl)

      scaredy adj • [Perh by back-formation from scaredy-cat..]

      schnitz n1 • by back-formation, sg snit a slice. (MAP)

      self-sown adj phr • by back-formation, v self-sow; n self-seeder. (MAP)

      shaft n 1 (pronc) • by back-formation from pl shavs..|šæv|

      sharecrop v • [Back-formation from sharecropper]

      sheaf n • by back-formation sheave(MAP)

      souse v1 B8 • [Appar back-form from soused drunk]

      snort v • [Perh back-formation < snorting pen, ~ post 1]

      specie n • [Back-formation from species..]

      spike pitcher n • by back-formation, v phr spike pitch, vbl n spike pitching

      squawed adj • rarely, by back-formation, v squaw to make crooked

      staunch n • [Prob back-formation from sta(u)ncheons..]

      stringhalt n A • [..stringhalter..back-formation from stringhaltered (at stringhalted)]

      stump-broke adj • by back-formation, verbs stump-break, stump-train

      sull v • [Back-formation < sullen understood as sullin(g)] (MAP)

      sulter v • [..perh back-formation from sultry]

      surl v • [Back-formation from surly]

      tale-tell v • [Back-formation from tale-teller, tale-telling]

      tamale n1 • [Back-formation from MexSpan tamales, pl of tamal..] (MAP)

      transportate v • [Back-formation from transportation..]

      trough n A5 (pronc) • [Prob back-formation from [trɔz] as reduced form of [trɔvz] or [trɔðz]..]

      tush adj • [Prob by back-formation from tush hog]

      unthoughted adj • rarely, by back-formation, adj thoughted thoughtful

      windjammer n • by back-formation, v windjam

      you-un pron • [Prob by back-formation from you-uns pron1 1]

Bahamian; Dictionary of Bahamian English

      conch n • [Bahamian Engl conch a native Bahamian (DBE 1804➝)..]

      coonah n • [..cf..DBE Junkanoo]

      cut-eye n, v • [..Cf..Bahamian..cut eye..see DBE]

      dash away v phr • Cf DBE

      day clean n • Cf..DBE

      dicty adj • Cf DBE

      dirt-eater n 1 • Cf DJE, DBE dirt-eating

      doctor shop n • Cf DJE, DBE

      duppy n • Cf DJE, DBE

      foo-foo n1 • Cf DJE, DBE

      fool n1 4 • Cf DBE

      for prep B2 • [..cf DJE fi3, DBE for.]

      fowl-crow n • Cf DBE

      high blood n • [Cf DBE]

      humbug n 4 • [..DBE humbug..]

      humbug v 2 • [Cf DBE humbug..]

      hungry adj, n A • [Cf DBE]

      hungry n B • [Cf DJE, DBE]

      icening n • [..cf..DBE, DJE]

      jawbone n 1 • Cf DJE 1837 ➝, DBE

      jawbone breaker n 1 • [..cf DBE]

      joog v • [Prob of Afr origin (cf DJE juk, DBE jook)..]

      longest, for the (last) adv phr • [..see also DBE]

      long eye n • [Cf DBE long-eye “covetous”..]

      me adj a • [Cf DBE, DJE]

      mojo n • Cf..DBE

      nosy around v phr • [Cf DBE nosey around (at nosey v. “to pry”)]

      nyam v • [..cf DBE, DJE]

      one indef art D • Cf DBE, DJE

      one-one adv, adj, n • Cf DBE, DJE

      onetime adv • Cf DJE, DBE

      poor joe n2 • Cf DBE

      say conj • [From any of several W Afr languages;..cf DBE say, DJE se]

      stay v 2 • cf also DBE stay 4

      stay v 3 • Cf DBE stay 3

      steady adv B1 • [Cf..DBE study adv. “regularly”]

      titty n1 • [..for possible Afr lang analogues cf DBE]

      ugly adj, adv, n • Cf DBE (at ogly), DJE

      una pron • [W Afr; cf Igbo unu you (pl); cf also DJE unu, DBE ona]

      what side adv phr • Cf DBE, DJE (at what side), DCEU (at wisside)

Baltimore See Maryland, Baltimore

Bambara

      cooter n • [Afr, akin to Bambara, Malinké kuta turtle; also Central Afr nkudu;..]

      cunner n2 • [Perh by coalescence of canoe, ult from Arawak, with Gullah ˈ kunu, ult Afr..]

Bantu

      cala n1 • [..Cf also Common Bantu *kádá to fry, roast]

      duppy n • [Bube (a Bantu language of West Afr) dupe ghost..]

Basque

      cho cho n • [Basque “child, young man”]

Belgian

      rolle bolle n • chiefly Upper Missip Valley; in Dutch and Belgian settlement areas

Belgian French See French, Belgian

Bible; Biblical

      Aaron’s rod n • [See Numbers 17:8]

      Abraham’s tree n • [Perh an allusion to Gen 21:33]

      adder n 3a • [Ref to Psalms 58:4..]

      ark n 5 • Gen 6:14-16

      Aunt Hagar’s children n pl • [Hagar, wife of Abraham and mother of Ishmael: Gen 21:9]

      Beltashazur’s off-ox n • [Cf Daniel 4:18f..]

      Beulah land n • [See Isaiah 62:4]

      Bible bug n • [Cf Exod 10:12-19]

      biblical measure n • [Cf Deut 25:15, Micah 6:10]

      bray v • Cf Proverbs 27:22 “bray a fool in a mortar with a pestle”

      burning bush n • [Cf Exodus 3:2-3]

      call one’s name v phr • [Prob Biblical; cf Gen 3:20]

      coat o’ Joseph n • [In ref to Joseph’s coat of many colors, Gen 37:3]

      consider-lily n • [Perh influenced by Matthew 6:28, Luke 12:27..]

      creature n B3 • [Orig in allusion to I Timothy 4:4..]

      crucifixion thorn n 1 • [From the crown of thorns..(Mark 15:17)]

      ebenezer n • [Cf 1 Samuel 7:12]

      Eve n • [Eve, in the Bible, the first woman]

      eye-servant n • [..cf Ephesians 6:5–6]

      fair shake n • [Perh in ref to..a shaken measure of grain (cf Luke 6:38)]

      fall asleep v phr • [Cf Acts 13:36, 2 Peter 3:4]

      feast in the wilderness n • [Perh in ref to Matthew 15:33..]

      fig leaf n • [Genesis 3:7]

      footstool n 1 • [Isaiah 66:1]

      foot washing n • John 13:14

      good measure n • [Cf Luke 6:38]

      gospel measure n • [In allusion to Luke 6:38]

      Ham’s grandson n • [..cf Genesis 9:18-25]

      hip and thigh adj phr • [..cf Judges 15:8]

      I-am n • [Cf Exodus 3:14 “I AM hath sent me unto you.”]

      idle bread n • [Cf Proverbs 31:27 “She..eateth not the bread of idleness”]

      Jacob and Rachel n • [In allusion to the deception of Jacob in Genesis 29:16–25]

      Jacob’s cattle bean n • [From its spotted appearance, in allusion to Genesis 30:39]

      Jacob’s coat n • [Prob in allusion to Genesis 37:3]

      Jacob’s ladder n 1 • [In allusion to Genesis 28:12..]

      Jehoshaphat n • [The Biblical name used as a euphem for Jesus]

      Jehu n • [Cf 2 Kings 9:2, 20]

      Jemima n • [The Biblical name used as a euphem for Jesus]

      Jerusalem n • [The Biblical name used as a euphem for Jesus]

      Jerush(e)y intj • [Pronc-spp for the Biblical name Jerusha used as euphems for Jesus..]

      jesse n • [Cf Isaiah 11:1]

      Jesus bug n • [In allusion to Matthew 14:25]

      Jesus Christ bird n • [In allusion to Matthew 14:25]

      jewels-of-Opar n • [..cf 1 Kings 9:27-28] 

      Job’s turkey n 1 • [Job, the Old Testament patriarch..] (MAP)

      Jonah n B1 • [..cf Jonah 1:17; 2:10] (MAP)

      Jonah’s gourd n • [Cf Jonah 4:6–10]

      Joseph’s coat n • [..cf Genesis 37:3]

      Methodist measure n 1 • [Prob in ref to Luke 6:38]

      ox n B2 • [Cf Luke 14:5..]

      pharaoh n • [..cf Exodus 10:12–19]

      posada n • in allusion to the Biblical story

      ring-streaked and striped adj phr • [Prob alter of Genesis 30:35 “ring-straked and spotted”]

      Sampson fox n • [In allusion to Judges 15:4..]

      Samson n1 • [..cf Judges 13–16]

      scripture cake n • cake made with ingredients mentioned in the Bible

      strong-in-the-log shoe n • [..cf Ephesians 6:10]

      Zaccheus tree n • [In ref to Biblical Zaccheus (Luke 19:1–10), who climbed a sycamore (Ficus sycomorus) to see Jesus]

Black

      Abraham Lincoln n • freq among Black speakers

      ace n • among Black speakers

      ace-boon-coon n • among Black speakers

      ace-coon n • among Black speakers

      Afro n • esp among young Black speakers (Map Section)

      ain’t v1 3 • among Black speakers

      ain’t v1 5 • among Black speakers

      ain’t it interrog exclam2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      airish adj 2 • chiefly among Blacks (MAP)

      air out v phr • among Black speakers

      Alabama n B • chiefly among Black speakers

      all hid n • among Black speakers

      alligator n1 B5 • orig among Black speakers and derog

      another adj • Pronc-spp, esp in representation of Black speech

      anxious adj B • among Black speakers

      ashes n pl 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      Aunt Hagar’s children n pl • among Black speakers

      Aunt Jane n • among Black speakers

      baby n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      bad adj B6 • chiefly among Black speakers

      bad-ass(ed) adj, n • chiefly among Black speakers

      bad child n • esp freq among Black speakers

      bad eye n • chiefly among Black speakers

      bad hair n • among Black speakers

      bad mouth n • chiefly among Black speakers

      badmouth v • esp among Black and young White speakers

      bad nigger n • among Black speakers

      bad rags n pl • among Black speakers

      bait n 3 • esp among Black speakers

      ball n2 • esp among Black speakers

      ball v2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      ball the jack v phr 2 • chiefly among Blacks

      band n3 • among Black speakers

      base v D2 • among Black speakers

      battle-hammed adj • chiefly among Black speakers; relic

      be v B1f • esp freq among Blacks; occas among Whites in the Sth

      be v B1g • esp among Black speakers

      be v B2a(1) • chiefly among Black speakers with little formal educ

      be v B3a • esp freq among Blacks

      be v B8b • esp freq among Blacks

      beat adj • esp among young, urban, and Black speakers

      beater n 2 • esp among Black speakers

      beau dollar n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP and Map Section)

      before-day n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      beg v (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      behind prep • among Black speakers

      behind a dime adv phr • chiefly among Black speakers (MAP)

      bex v • among Black speakers

      bid whist n • chiefly among Blacks (MAP)

      big daddy n • esp common among Black speakers (MAP)

      big day n • among Black speakers

      big-eye adj 1 • among Black speakers

      big mamma n • esp among Black speakers (MAP)

      billfolder n • esp among Black speakers

      blood adv • esp among Black speakers

      blood n 1 • among Black speakers

      blood n 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      blow v1 B6 • chiefly among Black speakers

      blow gage v phr • chiefly among Black speakers

      blue n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      bofe adj, pron • esp among Black speakers

      bogart n2 • chiefly among Blacks

      bogart v • chiefly among Blacks

      boguish adj • among Black speakers

      boody n • chiefly among Blacks

      boojy adj • among Black speakers

      bookity-book adv, n • esp among Black speakers

      boot n2 5 • among Black speakers; sometimes derog

      boss adj • now esp among Black speakers

      boss-man n 1 • esp common among Black speakers (MAP)

      bound v 1a • esp freq among Black speakers

      brace n 1 • esp among Black speakers

      brad n2 1 • among Black speakers

      breath n (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers

      breathe v (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers

      bright adj 2 • now chiefly among Black speakers

      broken vein n • esp common among Blacks

      brother n A1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      brother n A2 • orig among Southern Blacks

      bubba n1 1 • esp common among Blacks (MAP)

      buck-eyed adj2 • esp among Black speakers (Map Section)

      buddy gee n • among Black speakers

      bulldagger n • esp among Black speakers, freq derog

      bum n3 • esp among Blacks

      bump n 2 • esp among Blacks

      burial society n • esp among Blacks

      burn v B6 • among Black speakers; joc

      bury league n • among Black speakers

      bush n1 B2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      buzzard lope n 1 • esp among Black speakers

      call n1 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      call hogs v phr • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      camel walk n • freq among Black speakers

      cap v 1d • esp among Black speakers

      case n1 7 • chiefly among Blacks

      cat n 1b • chiefly among Blacks

      cat n 1c • orig among Black jazz musicians

      cat n 1d • esp among Blacks

      cat v 1 • chiefly among Blacks

      catch-pain n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      cat-eyed adj 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      catface n 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      cease v1 (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      cease v1 B • freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      cease v2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      Charlie n 2 • among Black speakers; derog

      cheese-eater n • chiefly among Black speakers

      chick n • esp among young speakers and among Black speakers; sometimes derog

      chicken n B7 • esp among Black speakers

      chicken-eater n 2 • esp among Black speakers; humorous

      child n A1 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      child n A2 (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      chump change n • among Black speakers

      church mother n • among Black speakers

      clean adj 2 • among Black speakers

      clearstone n • esp common among Black speakers (MAP)

      climb v 1 • esp in representation of Black Speech

      climb v 2d • esp among Black speakers

      cloth n • used esp in representations of Black speech

      coal n • among Black speakers

      coal-scuttle blond n • among Black speakers; joc

      coat, pull one’s v phr • among Black speakers

      cock n1 2 • esp among Black speakers

      cold adj2 • among Blacks

      collar v 1 • among Blacks

      collar v 2 • among Blacks

      colly v • esp among Blacks

      color-struck adj • among Blacks

      congolene n • esp among Black speakers

      conk n3 1 • esp among Black speakers

      conk v2 • esp among Black speakers

      conk-buster n • among Black speakers

      cookie n1 5 • among Black speakers

      cool adj 3 • earlier esp among Black speakers, now more widely used

      cool n 1 • earlier esp among young, coll educ, and Black speakers, now more widely used

      cool it v phr 1 • formerly esp among young, coll educ, and Black speakers; now more widespread

      cop v • among Black speakers

      cornrow n, v • esp among Blacks

      corn song n • esp among Blacks

      cotch n • among Blacks

      country adj • esp among Black speakers (MAP)

      crab-apple switch n • esp among Black speakers

      cracker n 3 • among Black speakers; derog

      crack one’s side(s) v phr • esp among Black speakers

      crack up v phr • esp among young, urban, coll educ, and Black speakers

      credit n, v (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      creep n2 • among Black speakers

      creep v B5 • among Black speakers

      creeper n 9 • among Black speakers

      crib n1 2 • esp among Black speakers

      crook n1 • esp among Black speakers

      crumb crusher n • esp among Black speakers; joc

      curioussome adj • esp among Black speakers

      cut-eye adj, adv • among Black speakers

      cut-eye n, v • among Black speakers

      dap adj • among Black speakers

      day-day intj, n • chiefly among Black speakers

      dead adj (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      dead cat on the line n • esp common among Black speakers (MAP)

      death n (pronc) • among Black speakers

      death rain n • among Black speakers

      declare before the Lord v phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      devil n • representing Black speech

      dew n (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      dicty adj • chiefly among Black speakers

      dicty n • among Black speakers

      dig v2 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

dig v2 2 • chiefly among young and mid-aged speakers; esp freq among Black speakers; esp freq in urban comms

      dirty hearts n pl • esp freq among Black speakers

      disappoint v B • esp freq among Black speakers

      dive v 1 • among Black speakers

      dive v 2 • esp among Black speakers

      do n1 3 • among Black speakers

      do v B1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      do v B3 • now esp among Black speakers

      do v C1c • esp freq among Black speakers; old-fash

      do v C2b • esp freq among Black (esp Gullah) speakers

      do-rag n • among Black speakers

      double-head(ed) adj • among Black speakers

      double tenant n • esp freq among Black speakers

      dout prep • chiefly among Black speakers

      down adj D7 • among Black speakers

      dozen n B1 • among Black speakers; esp urban

      drag n 13a • esp freq among Blacks and among young and mid-aged speakers

      drag n 14 • esp freq among Black speakers and among young and mid-aged speakers

      drive n 8 • esp among Black speakers

      dry adj 1 • esp among Black speakers

      dry drought n • esp freq among Black speakers

      dude n • esp freq among Black speakers

      during prep • chiefly among Black speakers

      eagle rock n, v • esp freq among Black speakers

      earth n • chiefly among Black speakers

      east n2 (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers (MAP)

      eastman n • among Black speakers; old-fash

      easy rider n • orig among Black speakers

      eat cheese v phr • among Black speakers

      either conj E2 • among Black speakers

      element n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      Emancipation (Proclamation) Day n • chiefly among Black speakers

      entitle n • esp freq among Black speakers; old-fash

      -est superl suff 4 • esp freq among Black speakers

      ever adv (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      every adj • esp among Black speakers

      evil adj B1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      excusing prep • esp among Black speakers

      exwice n, v • among Black speakers

      eyeball v 1 • orig esp freq among Black speakers

      face n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

fact n, v A1 • Note: Among Black and some White speakers, this may be of independent formation rather than Scots origin.

      faggot n • Faggot is more freq among Blacks, fag among Whites

      fall out v phr 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      fall out v phr 2 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      familious adj • esp freq among Black speakers; arch

      fatmouth v • among Black speakers 

      fay n • chiefly among Black speakers

      fessor n • esp freq among Black speakers

      filibuster v • esp freq among Black speakers

      fire hearth n • esp freq among Black speakers

      five-up n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      fix n 3 • among Black speakers

      fix v B5 • among Black speakers

      flunky n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      foot n C5e • among Black speakers

      football n 1 • among Black speakers

      fore prep 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      forget it phr 2 • among Black speakers

      fox n 1 • esp among Black speakers

      frail eel n • among Black speakers

      freak n 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      freeze v A2 • esp among Black speakers

      ’fro n • among Black speakers

      frog bread n • among Black speakers

      from prep • esp freq among Black speakers

      front v • among Black speakers

      full v 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      funky adj 1b • esp among Black speakers

      funky chicken n • esp among Black speakers

      gall shirt n • chiefly among Black speakers; somewhat old-fash

      game n • chiefly among Black speakers

      game v 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      Georgia skin (game) n • esp among Black speakers

      get v B1a • chiefly among Black speakers

      get down v phr 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      get down v phr 3 • among Black speakers

      get-go n • esp freq among Black speakers

      get over v phr • among Black speakers

      girl n B • Used as a term of address between Black women

      give v A1a • among Black speakers; old-fash

      give v A1b • among Black speakers; old-fash

      give v A2c • among Black speakers; old-fash

      go v A4a • esp freq among Black speakers

      go v B • esp freq among Black speakers

      go-long n • among Black speakers

      goofer n • chiefly among Black speakers

      goofer v • chiefly among Black speakers

      gospel bird n • esp among Black speakers; joc

      grand n • esp among Black speakers

      grandma n A5 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      gray n 1 • among Black speakers

      grease v B3 • among Black speakers

      hack n4 • chiefly among Black speakers

      hag n 1 • esp among Black speakers

      hagride v • esp among Black speakers

      hammer n B • among Black speakers

      hand n B4 • among Black speakers

      handkerchief head n • among Black speakers

      hang v A2 • esp among Black speakers

      happy adj 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      hard liver n • esp freq among Black speakers

      hat up v phr • chiefly among Black speakers

      haunt n B • esp freq among Black speakers

      haunty adj • among Black speakers

      have v1 A1a • freq among Black speakers, hab(s)

      hawk n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      he pron 2 • among Blacks, esp Gullah speakers

      he pron 3 • as a simple object..restricted to Black speech

      head handkerchief n • esp freq among Black speakers

      head knock n • among Black speakers

      hear v A2d • esp freq among Black speakers

      hearth n A3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      heaven n • esp among Black speakers

      heaven n (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      hebby adj • among Black speakers

      heifer n 1b • esp freq among Black speakers

      hell n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      herb n B2 • among Black speakers

      here adv, adj, exclam, pron A3 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      heself pron • among Black speakers

      hickey n2 b • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP and Map Section)

      him pron B4 • esp freq among Black speakers

      him pron B5 • esp freq among Black speakers

      hincty adj 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      hincty n • chiefly among Black speakers

      hind n • esp freq among Black speakers

      hip-slip n • esp freq among Black speakers

      hogpen n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      hold v A1b • esp freq among Black speakers

      home boy n 1 • now esp freq among Black and other minority speakers

      home boy n 2 • orig among Black speakers, now more widespread

      honky n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers; usu derog

      hoodoo n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      hook n 5 • esp freq among Black speakers

      hoosier n B1b • among Black speakers; derog

      horse n B7 • esp freq among Black speakers

      house party n • esp freq among Black speakers

      house-rent party n • chiefly among Black speakers; urban

      humbug v 2 • among Black speakers

      hungry n B • among Black speakers

      hush v B2 • freq among Black speakers

      ice potato n • esp freq among Black speakers

      igg v • chiefly among Black speakers

      instead adv • esp freq among Black speakers

      jack n1 15 • among Black speakers

      jack up v phr 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      James Brown n • among Black speakers

      jaw n • among Black speakers

      jeff n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      jeff v • among Black speakers

      jelly n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      jelly n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      jelly roll n 2 • among Black speakers

      jickhead n • esp freq among Black speakers

      jimswinger n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      jitterbug n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      jive adj • chiefly among Black speakers

      jive n • chiefly among Black speakers

      jive v1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      joan v • among Black speakers

      Joe Louis n • esp freq among Black speakers

      jomo n • esp freq among Black speakers

      jook n 2 • orig among Black speakers (MAP)

      jook v3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      jump salty v phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      jump-up song n • chiefly among Black speakers

      just adv 3 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      keen adj 1 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      keep v A2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      keep v A3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      kernel n 2a • esp freq among Black speakers

      kitchen n2 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      kittledee n • esp freq among Black speakers

      knee baby n • now esp freq among Black speakers

      later exclam • esp freq among Black speakers

      lavatory n • esp freq among Black speakers

      leave v A1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      leave v A2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      leave v A3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      let v A2a • esp freq among Black speakers

      let v B1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      like v1 B • esp freq among Black speakers

      little more and(, a) adv phr • among Black speakers

      little Sally Walker n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      live v B2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      lonesome adj C • esp freq among Black speakers

      long adj B3b • esp freq among Black speakers

      long v A • esp freq among Black speakers

      longest, for the (last) adv phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      Lord n1 B1 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      love n C • esp freq among Black speakers

      love v B2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      love bone n • among Black speakers

      main man n • chiefly among Black speakers

      main squeeze n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      make v1 D21 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      mamma n1 5 • esp freq among Black speakers

      mammy n1 1b • among Black speakers

      mammy n1 5 • among Black speakers

      man n A • chiefly Sth, chiefly among Black speakers pronc-spp mon, mun

      man n B2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      man n C2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      man n C3 • esp freq among male Black speakers

      man n C5b • among Black speakers

      mange n • among Black speakers

      mannish adj • esp freq among Black speakers

      Mary Jane n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      master n • chiefly Sth, among Black speakers, obs, mars(e), mass(a)

      master n • chiefly S Atl coast, among Black speakers, obs, maus(sa), mossa

      master n Bl • Formerly used by Blacks in the South as a respectful title

      measure n, v (pronc) • among Black speakers

      meddle v 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      member n • among Black speakers

      mercy seat n • esp freq among Black speakers

      mess over v phr • chiefly among Black speakers

      middleday n • esp freq among Black speakers

      mines pron • esp freq among Black speakers

      miration n • esp freq among Black speakers

      misery n • esp freq among Black speakers

      Miss Ann(e) n • chiefly among Black speakers

      Mister Charlie n • among Black speakers

      mistress n • esp freq among Black speakers

      mistress n B1 • Formerly used by Black speakers in the South

      moan n 2 • among Black speakers

      moan v • among Black speakers

      mojo n • orig chiefly among Black speakers

      monkey-chaser n • esp freq among Black speakers

      mother dear n • chiefly among Black speakers (MAP)

      mother wit n • esp freq among Black speakers

      mouth n, v (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers

      Mr. It n • chiefly among Black speakers

      must vbl aux 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      must be adv phr • among Black speakers

      nap n1 1 • among Black speakers

      nappy adj • esp freq among Black speakers

      nation sack n • among Black speakers

      natural n D • chiefly among Black speakers

      nature n B1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      neither adj, adv, pron, conj (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |ˈnidə|

      never adv • chiefly among Black speakers

       nigger n1 B1b • Used in a depreciatory sense by Black speakers

      nigger n1 B1d • Used in a neutral or favorable sense by Black speakers

      nigger n1 B2b • esp freq among Black speakers

      night doctor n • chiefly among Black speakers

      none pron Bb • now esp freq among Black speakers

      nose open, get one’s v phr • among Black speakers

      nothing n (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers

      nuse n, v • among Black speakers

      nusen v past • among Black speakers

      nyoung adj • among Black speakers

      ofay n • among Black speakers

      off v E • orig among Black speakers

      one adv C1 • among Black (esp Gullah) speakers

      oreo n • esp freq among Black speakers

      outside child n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      outside man n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      paddy n1 4 • chiefly among Black speakers

      palement n • among Black speakers

      pale road n • among Black speakers

      palma Christi n • esp among Black speakers

      panel n • chiefly among Black speakers

      partridge n A4 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      pass v 1a • esp freq among Black speakers

      pat v 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      peacebreaker n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      peck n3 • chiefly among Black speakers

      peckerwood n 2 • term of abuse for a White person, esp by Black speakers

      peola n • among Black speakers

      people n A • esp freq among Black speakers

      peruse v • freq among Black speakers

      piccolo n • chiefly among Black speakers

      pink n2 3b • among Black speakers

      pitty-pat n • among Black speakers

      plat-eye n • among Black speakers

      play adj • among Black speakers

      play n 1b • among Black speakers

      play-toy n • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      pleasure n, v (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |ˈplɛə(r)|

      pluck n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      poach v A2 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      poontang n 1 • now esp freq among Black speakers

      praying ground n • chiefly among Black speakers

      press v • among Black speakers

      pressed adj • among Black speakers

      process n • among Black speakers

      process v • among Black speakers

      prone into v phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      quarrel v B • esp freq among Black speakers

      race man n • usu used by Black speakers

      rank v 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      rather adv B2b • esp freq among Black speakers

      re- pref • esp freq among Black speakers

      read v1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      ready adj 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      red n B4 • among Black speakers

      reel n • chiefly among Black speakers

      remembrance n • esp freq among Black speakers

      rent party n • chiefly among Black speakers

      rise v A1c • esp freq among Black speakers

      rise v A2d • esp freq among Black speakers

      root n1 B1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      root v C • among Black speakers

      root doctor n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      root man n • among Black speakers

      root work n • esp freq among Black speakers

      rosin chewer n • esp freq among Black speakers

      run down v phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      rural n • chiefly among Black speakers

      rusty dusty n • among Black speakers

      sagaciate v • esp freq among Black speakers

      salty adj 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      Sam n2 • now chiefly among Black speakers

      same like conj phr, prep phr, adj phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      Sanctified (Church) n • chiefly among Black speakers

      satisfy v • esp freq among Black speakers

      say v A2 • now esp in representations of Black speech

      say v B2a • esp freq among Black speakers

      say what interrog exclam • orig esp freq among Black speakers, but now more widely known

      scrap iron n • esp freq among Black speakers

      scream v • esp freq among Black speakers

      scronch n • among Black speakers

      scronch v 2 • among Black speakers

      seek v • esp freq among Black speakers

      send v 2 • esp freq among Black speakers, sahnt, saunt, sont

      set n2 3 • among Black speakers

      set horses v phr • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      set the floor v phr • among Black speakers

      shame adj • chiefly among Black speakers

      shivering owl n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      short-patient adj phr • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      shout n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      shout v 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      shout song n • esp freq among Black speaker

      shuck v1 5b(1) • esp freq among Black speakers

      sides adv, prep • esp freq among Black speakers

      siditty adj • among Black speakers

      signify v 1 • among Black speakers

      sing n • among Black speakers

      sinner n • esp freq among Black speakers

      skiffle n • among Black speakers

      skin n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      skin n 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      skinny n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      slave n • among Black speakers

      slickster n • chiefly among Black speakers

      slide n 2 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      slowful adj • esp freq among Black speakers

      smart adj 2 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      smash n 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      smooth adj, v, adv (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers

      snake hip(s) n • orig esp freq among Black speakers

      snickle v • esp freq among Black speakers

      soda cracker n • esp freq among Black speakers

      sometimey adj • esp freq among Black speakers

      soon adj 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      so till conj • esp freq among Black speakers

      soul-case n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      sound v • esp freq among Black speakers

      soup v • esp freq among Black speakers

      south n, adj, adv • esp among Black speakers |sa^Uf|

      specify v • esp freq among Black speakers

      splib n • chiefly among Black speakers

      spoil v C2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      spread v A • esp freq among Black speakers, spreaded

      'spute v • among Black speakers

      square n1 B3 • chiefly among Black speakers

      staggle v • esp freq among Black speakers

      stallion n 1 • among Black speakers

      stay v 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      stay v 2 • among Black speakers

      steady adv B1 • among Black speakers

      sticking ppl adj • among Black speakers

      stocking cap n • among Black speakers

      stone adj • among Black speakers

      street cleaner n • among Black speakers

      street, in the adj phr • among Black speakers (MAP)

      Striver's Row n • among Black speakers

      stroy v, ppl adj • chiefly among Black speakers

      struction n • among Black speakers

      strut n 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      study v1 4 • chiefly among Black speakers

      stumpknocker n 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      style v • among Black speakers

      suck one's teeth v phr • vocal “gesture”..in Black cultures in Africa, the Caribbean, and the US

      suption n1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      sweetback n • among Black speakers

      swish broom n • esp freq among Black speakers and among speakers with little formal educ (MAP)

      switch v 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      swizzled ppl adj2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      take v A1a • esp freq among Black speakers

      take v A2f • esp freq among Black speakers

      take low v phr • esp freq among Black speakers

      ta-ta exclam • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      tea for the fever, not to take v phr • esp among Black speakers

      tell v B1a • esp freq among Black speakers

      tennis n • esp freq among Black speakers

      tetter n1 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      thank v1, n • esp freq among Black speakers, tank, t'engk

      thank v1 B • esp freq among Black speakers

      that pron, conj, adv, art A2 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      them pron, adj (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |dɛm|

      then adv A1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      there adv, adj, pron A2 • esp freq among Black speakers, da(r), dah

      there adv, adj, pron A3 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      these pron, adj • esp among Black speakers |diz|

      they pron1 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |de, di|

      they adj • esp freq among Black speakers

      theyselves pron • esp freq among Black speakers

      thief n, v (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers |tif|

      thief v B • esp freq among Black speakers

      thirty n, adj, pron (pronc) • esp among Black speakers |ˈtɜti|

      this pron, adj • esp freq among Black speakers, di(s)s, dish

      those pron, adj (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |doz|

      though prep1, adv (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers |do|

      three-card monte n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      through adv, prep 2 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      throw v A2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      throw v A3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      throw v B1b • esp freq among Black speakers

      throw v C3 • among Black speakers

      throw a brick and hide one's hand(s) v phr • among Black speakers

      tight adj • orig esp freq among Black speakers, young speakers, and male speakers; now more widespread

      till prep, conj A2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      tip v • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      title n • among Black speakers

      toad-frog stool n • esp freq among Black speakers

      together adj B • orig among Black speakers, now more widely used

      tom n1 2 • among Black speakers

      tone v1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      tonk n1 1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      tooth n (pronc) • chiefly among Black speakers |tuf, tut|; rarely |t^Uɵ, tʌɵ|

      tooth n B1 • chiefly among Black speakers

      tooth n B2 • chiefly among Black speakers:

      torn up adj phr 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      trick bag n • orig esp among Black speakers, now more widespread

      trifling adj 3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      truck v 1 • orig chiefly among Black speakers

      trunk n 3 • among Black speakers

      truth n • esp among Black speakers

      tumblesault n, v • esp freq among Black speakers, tumblesauce (MAP)

      two-head(ed) adj • among Black speakers

      ugly n D1a • chiefly among Black speakers

      Uncle Tom n 1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      unfinancial adj 1 • formerly widespread, now esp freq among Black speakers

      upside prep 1a • esp freq among Black speakers

      uptight adj • chiefly among Black speakers

      urinate n • among Black speakers

      us pron B1 • among Black speakers

      us adj • among Black speakers

      usn pron1 • esp among Black speakers

      us's adj • esp among Black speakers

      vacation n • esp freq among Black speakers

      van van oil n • esp freq among Black speakers

      vine n • among Black speakers

      waistline party n • among Black speakers

      want v1 B1 • esp freq among Black speakers

      want v1 B2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      waste v 3 • esp freq among Black speakers (MAP)

      waste up v phr • chiefly among Black speakers

      we-all pron 2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      we-all's adj, pron2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      whatsomever pron • esp freq among Black speakers

      whist n 1 • now chiefly among Black speakers

      whist n 2 • chiefly among Black speakers

      white on rice n • orig among Black speakers; now more widely known

      whitey n 1 • chiefly among Black speakers; usu derog

      who pron B • esp freq among Black speakers

      witchcraft v • esp among Black speakers

      with prep, adv A3 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      with prep, adv A4 (pronc) • esp among Black speakers

      without prep, adv, conj A2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      without prep, adv, conj A3 • esp freq among Black speakers

      woman n B2 • esp freq among Black speakers

      woof v • chiefly among Black speakers

      woof ticket n • esp among Black speakers

      worriation n • esp freq among Black speakers

      wrinkles n pl • esp freq among Black speakers

      yellowhammer n 4 • esp freq among Black speakers

      yes adv 1 (pronc) • esp freq among Black speakers

      yet adv, conj B3 • chiefly among Black speakers

      yonder adv, adj, n A6 • esp freq among Black speakers

      you adj, pron2 • among Black speakers, esp Gullah speakers

      you-all adj B • among Black speakers

      your mamma exclam • esp freq among Black speakers

blend; blended (See also coalescence)

      a lots adv, adj • [Blend of a lot + lots much]

      a many a adj phr • [Blend of a many adj phr + many a ..]

      absotoot(e)ly adv • [Blend of absolutely + toot ..]

      aggerpervoke v, • [Blend of metath forms of aggravate + provoke]

      aggervex v • [Blend of aggravate + vex]

      aggrafret v • [Blend of aggravate + fret]

      aggravoke v • [Blend of aggravate + provoke..]

      aglory adj • [Blend of aglore + glory]

      all get-outdoors n • [Blend of all get-out + all outdoors 2]

      alterated ppl adj • [Blend of altered + castrated..]

      altone n • [Blend of alto + baritone]

      ambacker juice n • [Blend of ambeer + ’backer..]

      andog n • [Prob blend of andiron + firedog..]

      angeliquor n • [Blend of angelica + liquor]

      animule n • [Blend of animal + mule]

      anti-by-godlin adv • [Blend of antigodlin adv + by god]

      anti-whampus adj • [Blend of antigodlin + catawampus adj]

      antymire n • [Euphem blend of ant + pismire 1]

      Arkansawyan adj • [Blend of Arkansawyer and Arkansan]

      arthuratics n • [Blend of arthuritis + rheumatics]

      ass-end-backwards adv phr • [Blend of ass-end-to and ass-backward(s)]

      Astorbilt n • [Blend of Astor + Vanderbilt..]

      astorperious adj • [Blend of Astor.. + imperious]

      balooey n • [Blend of baloney + hooey]

      bapsouse v, • [Blend of baptize + souse..]

      barley bright n • [Blend of barley break..and marlow bright..]

      becount n • [Perh blend of because + account]

      bedsink n • [Prob blend of bedroom and sinkroom..]

      beezer n • [Perh blend of beak and sneezer]

      blabberskite n • [Blend of blabber + blatherskite..]

      bleenie n • [Perh blend of baloney + weenie sausage]

      blinky-blue n • [Perh blend of blinky + blue john n]

      blinky-john n • [Blend of blinky + blue john n]

      bluff n2 • [Prob blend of bluster or blast and puff]

      blugeons n • [Prob blend of blue + flugens n]

      bodacious adj, adv • [Prob blend of bold + audacious..]

      bohind n • [Prob blend of bohunkus + behind]

      boocoodles n • [Blend of boocoo (see beaucoup) + oodles..]

      brand-fire-new adj phr • [Blend of brand-new + fire-new]

      brand-splinter-new adj phr • [Blend of brand-new + splinter-new]

      breezeport n • [Perh blend of breezeway and carport]

      buggery boo n • [Blend of booger n1 + bugaboo]

      bulldocia n • [Perh a blend of bull..bulldoze, and braggadocio]

      bullgine n • [Blend of bull + (en)gine]

      bulvine n • [Blend of bull + bovine]

      bumbershoot n • [Perh blend of bumberella + -shoot, perh infl by chute]

      bumbersol n • [Blend of bumbershoot + parasol]

      bummox n • [Perh blend of bum + lummox..]

      cademy n • [catty n1 1 perh blended with academy..]

      cafugelty n • [Prob alter of Scots carfuffle, carfuchle.., perh blended with Scots curfuggle..]

      cantering adv • [Blend of catering + canting..]

      capush n • [Perh blend of caboodle + push n 1]

      cassabanana n • [Perh blend of casaba (melon) + banana]

      chaparajos n pl • [Prob blend of chaparreras + aparejo]

      chaunchy adj, adv • [Perh blend of chinchy and raunchy]

      cheapwad n • [Perh blend of cheapskate + tightwad]

      chest robe n • [Blend of chest of drawers + wardrobe]

      chew fire v phr • [Blend of chew nails + breathe fire]

      chifforobe n • [Blend of chiffonier + wardrobe]

      chirper adj • [?Blend of chirp adj + chipper]

      chizzly adj • [Perh blend of chilly + drizzly]

      chug n3 • [Perh blend of chew..+ plug, perh infl by chunk]

      clout n2 • [Perh blend of clod n + lout..]

      cockeye piddle exclam • [Prob blend of cockeye and padiddle]

      coffin stick n • [Prob a blend of coffin nail 1 + cancer stick]

      cogilate v • [Prob blend of cogitate + calculate]

      collash v • [Blend of collide + clash]

      combinder n • [Perh blend of combine n + binder]

come-easy, go-easy, come-Sunday-God’ll-send-Monday adj phr • [Blend of come day, go day (,God send Sunday) + come easy, go easy]

      comprehende v • [Appar a blend of comprehend + Span comprender]

      compulshency n • [Prob blend of compulsion + pushency or urgency]

      confuddled ppl adj • [Prob blend of confused + befuddled]

      connyswaggle v • [Perh blend of Engl dial connyfogle ..+ hornswoggle]

      copperhead n2 • [Perh blend of copper n 1 + Indian head]

      coppermouth n • [Prob a blend of copperhead and cottonmouth]

      coverhauls n • [Blend of coveralls + overhauls]

      coydog n • [Blend of coyote + dog]

      crank n • [?Perh a blend of crick and cramp..]

      crankpot n • [Perh blend of crank + crackpot]

      crash v • [Prob blend of crush and smash]

      Cratch n2 • [Alter of scratch, itself a blend of scrat and cratch ..]

      cross-section n • [Blend of crossroads + intersection]

      cuspitoon n • [Blend of cuspidor + spittoon]

      cuss-fired adj • [Prob blend of cussed + hell-fired]

      dew-hoof n • [Blend of dewclaw + hoof..]

      dog iron n 1 • [Perh blend of andiron + dog n1 B3]

      dornful adv • [Perh blend of doleful + mournful..]

      down in the weather adj phr • [Prob blend of down in the dumps ..+ under the weather]

      downburst n • [Prob blend of downpour + cloudburst]

      downfall n 1 • [Perh blend of downpour + rainfall]

      dubious adj A4 • [Blend of duberous..(see A3 above) + -some..]

      dumfoozled adj • [Perh blend of dumbfounded + bumfoozle]

      dwaddle v, • [Perh blends of dawdle or diddle v 5 + twiddle]

      ear needle n • [Prob blend of ear sewer 1 + darning needle 1]

      easy-go-lucky adj • [Blend of easygoing + happy-go-lucky]

      effeminine adj • [Blend of effeminate + feminine]

      ends, at adj phr • [Perh blend of at odds + at opposite ends]

      endurable adj • [Blend of endure + durable]

      enjoyous adj • [Blend of enjoyable + joyous]

      explification n • [Blend of explication + -ification]

      expose v • [Prob blend of expect + suppose]

      fatty arbuckle n • [From Roscoe “Fatty” Arbuckle..; arbuncle is prob a blend of arbuckle + carbuncle]

      fatty dodger n • [Blend of fatty-bread + corn dodger]

      feather, knocked for a adj phr • [Perh blend of knocked for a loop + knocked over with a feather]

      feather tail n • [Perh blend of feather cloud + mare’s tail 1]

      fiddledeedee around v phr • [Blend of fiddledeedee + fiddle around]

      fidgie-gibbets n pl • [Perh blend of fidgets + flibbertigibbet]

      Filipinyock n • [Perh blend of Filipino + Hunyock]

      finch v • [Perh blend of filch + pinch]

      finickity adj • [Perh blend of finicky + persnickity]

      fire mantel n • [Perh blend of fireboard 1 + mantel]

      firepiece n • [Perh blend of fire + mantelpiece 1]

      fishburg n • [Blend of fish + hamburg 1]

      flambastic adj • [Prob blend of flamboyant + bombastic]

      flambustious adj • [Perh blend of flamboyant + bustious..]

      flapcake n • [Blend of flapjack + pancake]

      flea in one’s bonnet n • [Blend of flea in one’s ear + bee in one’s bonnet]

      fliery adj • [Perh blend of fiery + fly..]

      flinch v2 • [Perh blend of filch + pinch]

      flipper n2 • [Perh blend of flip n2 + flapper]

      flippity adj • [Prob blend of flip or flippant + uppity]

      fluzzy-headed adj • [Perh blend of fluffy + fuzzy..]

      flysquatter n • [Perh blend of squasher + swatter]

      for all of me adv phr • [Perh blend of obs for me as far as I am concerned + for all I care]

      fourbles n pl • [..perh understood as blend of four + marbles]

      frandom, by adv phr • [Perh blend of by feel + at random]

      freality n • [Perh blend of free + liberality]

      freshlets n pl • [Perh blend of fresh n 4 + haslet]

      frizzle v • [Blend of fry + sizzle]

      frog’s breadth n • [Prob blend of hair’s breadth + frog hair 2a]

      furthenough adv • [Prob blend of further + enough]

      galley-endways adv • [Prob blend of galley-west + endways]

      galleywampus adj • [Prob blend of galley-west + wampus]

      galliwopper n • [Perh blend of gallinipper 1a + golly-whopper]

      gawkward adj • [Blend of gawky + awkward]

      gellyon n • [Prob blend of gelding + stallion]

      goboon n • [Blend of gob n1 1b + spittoon]

      gommick around v phr • [Perh blend of gammick + gaum v1]

      gooch v • [Perh blend of geech + goose v 2]

      goodles n pl • [Prob blend of gobs + oodles]

      google n • [Perh blend of goggle n + goozle n 1]

      gormuck v • [Perh blend of gaum v1 1 + muck]

      gormus adj • [Perh blend of gormy (at gaumy adj1) + enormous]

      grassoline n • [Blend of grass + gasoline]

      gritchel n • [Blend of grip + satchel]

      hand pocket n • [Perh blend of handbag 1 + pocketbook]

      handbook n • [Prob blend of handbag and pocketbook]

      handsault n • [Blend of handspring + somersault]

      haul loose v phr • [Perh blend of haul off + let loose]

      haylage n • [Blend of hay + silage]

      hempine n • [Prob blend of hemlock + pine]

      high clover, be in v phr • [Blend of high cotton + in (the) clover..]

      hipskeltered adj • [Perh blend of hipshot + helter-skelter]

      hit the jack v phr • [Perh blend of hit the ball 3 + ball the jack 1]

      hold v C2b • [Prob a blend of hold a candle to and be a match for..]

      hold v C2c • [Prob a blend of hold a candle to and be a patch on]

      holomuu n • [Blend of holoku + muumuu]

      homekeeper n • [Blend of homemaker + housekeeper]

      hoodoodle v • [Perh blend of hoodoo v 2 + doodle to cheat]

      hookaroon n • [Blend of hook + pickaroon]

      hooky, cut v phr • [Blend of cut school + play hooky]

      hope to my die, I exclam • [Prob blend of I hope to die + I hope I may die]

      hossname n • [Perh blend of hoss (see horse B3) a person + named]

      howbeever adv • [Prob blend of how be it + however..]

      hunyak n • [Perh blend of Hun or Hunk Hungarian + Polack]

      hurang n • [Perh blend of hue and harangue]

      hybolic adj • [..perh blend of hyper- ..+ symbolic]

      impity adj • [Perh blend of impudent + uppity]

      intestinals n pl • [Prob blend of intestines + internals]

      jackalope n • [Blend of jackrabbit 1 + antelope]

      jahoo n2 • [Perh blend of Jehu 1 + yahoo]

      jamfest n • [Perh blend of gabfest and jam session..]

      jeez-wax intj • [Prob blend of jeez and beeswax]

      jitneur n • [Prob blend of jitney + chauffeur]

      judicule n • [Perh blend of judy (cf judy bag + reticule] 

      juvember n • [Blend of June + November]

      keepsies n pl • [Blend of keeps + -ies 2]

      kitty-wampus adv, adj • [Prob blend of kitty-corner adv, adj + wampus]

      lara-hoopin adj • [Perh blend of larruping adj 1 + whooping]

      log god n • [Perh blend of logcock + lord god]

      lot n 3 • [Blend of a lot (of) + lots (of)]

      Mainiac n • [Blend of Maine + maniac] 

      mater bump n • [Perh blend of matter n1 B1 + nature bump]

      medinary adj • [Prob blend of medium + ordinary]

      mescrew n • [Perh blend of mesquite + screw bean]

      mogey v • [Perh blend of mog + mosey]

      mosquito doctor n • [Prob blend of mosquito hawk 2a + snake doctor]

      narely adv • [Perh blend of not or nary adv + barely]

      nimwit n • [Blend of nitwit + dimwit]

      nip and go adv phr • [Prob blend of nip and tuck + touch and go]

       nobbin n • [Prob blend of nob + noggin]

      norate v • [..perh blend of narrate + orate]

      oatlage n • [Blend of oats + silage]

      odds and endments n pl • [Prob blend of odds and ends + oddments]

      or less conj • [Prob blend of or else + unless]

      oxheart n • [Blend of oxeye 1a + blackheart 1]

      pank v • [Perh blend of pack + spank..]

      Podock n • [Prob blend of Podunk 1 + boondock n 1]

      prezactly adv • [Blend of precisely and exactly]

      pushency n • [Prob blend of push + urgency or emergency]

      pussy’s tobacco n • [Blend of pussytoes + ladies’-tobacco]

      queerous n • [Prob blend of queer + curious; cf SND querious]

      rainberella n • [Joc blend of rain + umbrella]

      recomember v • [Blend of recollect + remember]

      regard n B • [Prob blend of in regard to + as regards]

      reharsh v • [Prob blend of rehearse + rehash]

      rehaul v • [Prob blend of repair + overhaul]

      remuda n • [..the form remontha in quot 1887 is appar a blend with MexSpan remonta..]

      revengeance n • [..here prob reformed as blend of revenge + vengeance]

      rip-tail snorter n • [Blend of ring-tail + ripsnorter]

      roust v • [Perh blend of rouse + rout..]

      run down at the heels adj phr • [Blend of run down + down at the heel(s)]

      rusticrat n • [Prob blend of rusticator + aristocrat]

      scadoodles n pl • [Blend of scad(s) + oodles]

      Scowegian n • [Blend of Scandinavian + Norwegian]

      scunnion n • [Appar blend of scallion + onion]

      sheboodle n • [Blend of shebang + caboodle]

      shurn v • [Perh blend of shun + spurn..]

      skew, out of adj phr • [Appar blend of askew + out of kilter and similar phrr]

      skinny v • [Blend of shinny v + skin v B3] (MAP)

      skittle n1 • [Perh by metath, but perh blend of skillet + kittle]

      slantindicular adj, adv • [Blend of slant or slanch (at slaunch) + perpendicular]

      slaphazard adj • [Blend of slapdash adj + haphazard]

      slimpsy adj • [Prob blend of slim + flimsy..]

      slunch v • [Blend of slump (or slouch) + hunch]

      snab v • [Perh blend of nab and snag, but cf snabble]

      snirt n • [Blend of snow + dirt]

      snow v2 • [Prob blend of snum v + swow]

      solemncholy adj • [Blend of solemn + melancholy]

      splake n • [Blend of speckled + lake]

      sprew v • [Perh blend of spray + spew]

      squadrol n • [Blend of squad car + patrol]

      squeasy adj • [Prob blend of squeamish + queasy; OED2 ➝ 1655]

      star-eye(d) grass n • [Appar a blend of star grass 3 + blue-eyed grass 1]

      stromp v • [Perh blend of stomp + tramp/tromp]

      stunt n • [..perh here a blend of runt + stunted]

      sumbleset n • [Blend of somerset + tumble]

      summercater n • [Prob blend of summer + rusticator]

      sunberella n • [Joc blend of sun + umbrella]

      surrogated adj • [Perh blend of serrated + corrugated or malaprop for corrugated]

      tarnation n, exclam • [..blend of tarnal + damnation or darnation]

      teetering horse n • [Prob blend of teetering board (at teeter v) + ridy-horse 2)..]

      Texican n • [Appar Texican Texan (DA 1864 ➝), reinterpreted as blend of Texan + Mexican]

      thrin n • [Prob blend of three + twin]

      timage n • [Prob blend of timothy + silage]

      timber cock n • [Prob blend of timberdoodle + woodcock]

      toadmaroon n • [Perh blend of toadstool + musheroon (at mushroom A)]

      tumblesault n, v • [Blend of tumble + somersault] (MAP)

      tumbleset n, v • [Blend of tumble + somerset] (MAP)

      tusk n1 A5 • [Appar blend of tusk n1 + tush n]

      umbersol n • [Prob blend of umbrella + parasol]

      uppitish adj • [Prob blend of uppity + uppish]

      weaver v • [Prob blend of weave + waver]

      whindig n • [Perh blend of whingding + shindig]

      whirlicue n • [Blend of whirl + curlicue]

      work v 2a • [Blend of 1 above with be alive with in same sense]

      vog n • [Blend of volcanic + fog or smog]

Block Island See Rhode Island, Block Island

Boston See Massachusetts, Boston

Brazilian Portuguese See Portuguese, Brazilian

British See England

Brooklyn See New York, Brooklyn

Bube See Bantu

Buffalo See New York, Buffalo

 


C


 

 

Cajun French See French, Cajun

California

      abalone v • CA

      Adam-and-Eve n 3 • CA

      adobe n 4 • SW, esp CA

      ajo n • AZ, CA

      aliso n 1 • CA

      alkali weed n 3 • CA

      all-ee all-ee auction free exclam • sCA, HI

      all-ee all-ee oxen (all in) free exclam • chiefly West and Gt Lakes, esp CA (MAP)

      amole n 1a • CA

      Angeleno n • formerly sCA, now more widespread

      angel’s-trumpet n 1 • Sth, CA and HI

      angry acacia n • AZ, CA, NV

      August flower n • CA

      batfish n 3 • CA

      bayo n 1 • chiefly CA

      beavertail grass n • CA

      Bigfoot n • chiefly CA

      billy owl n • esp CA

      black frost n 1 • chiefly NEast, Gt Lakes, C and S Atl, CA (MAP)

      blind pig n 1 • chiefly w Inland Nth, CA (MAP and Map Section)

      blueblossom n • Pacific, esp CA

      blue gum n2 1 • CA

      blue myrtle n 1 • chiefly CA

      boss dice n • esp CA

      buckbrush n 3b • CA

      buddhahead n • chiefly HI, also CA

      burn v B3 • scattered, but esp NEng, CA

      burr clover n • esp CA

      burroweed n 2 • CA

      calf’s head n • chiefly nCA

      campoody n • esp CA

      canchalagua n • CA

      candy pulling n • scattered, but chiefly Sth, S Midl, NEast, CA (MAP)

      canyon maple n • CA

      cascaron n • chiefly CA

      chamisal n • CA

      chamise n 1 • chiefly CA

      chamise brush n • CA

      chamise lily n • CA

      Charlie’s dead phr • esp CA

      checkerbloom n • chiefly CA

      chesterfield n 1 • esp CA

      chilicothe n • CA

      chilipepper n • CA

      chinquapin n B3 • chiefly CA, OR

      chispa n • CA

      chowder n 1 • orig and chiefly NEng, now also Nth, CA, C Atl (MAP)

      chubasco n • CA, TX

      cioppino n • chiefly CA

      Clamper n • chiefly nCA

      coarse gold n • chiefly CA

      cobra plant n • nCA, swOR

      compie n • Pacific, esp CA

      con n1 • scattered, but esp NY, CA (MAP)

      cooler n 2 • esp CA

      corn lily n 3a • West, esp CA

      cornmeal bread n • chiefly Nth, CA (MAP)

      corral snake n • CA

      cougar n • chiefly NW, CA, UT (MAP)

      cow county n • CA, NV

      cow poison n • chiefly CA

      coyote v 1 • esp CA

      crevice v • esp CA

      desert turtle n • SW, esp sCA

      dime, off the adj phr • chiefly CA

      dingy adj • chiefly CA, NW

      ditch v 1 • esp c,sCA (MAP)

      dobe n 5 • West, esp CA

      doghole n 2 • nCA, sOR coasts

      earthquake weather n • CA

      Easter lily n 1 • chiefly CA

      E Clampus Vitus n • CA

      embarcadero n • chiefly CA

      enchilada n • orig SW, CA, but now widely recognized (MAP)

      encino n • esp CA

      English walnut n • chiefly N and C Atl, CA

      escobita n • chiefly CA

      estero n • CA

      evening-snow n 1 • CA

      evergreen oak n b • CA

      fag n • scattered, but esp NY, PA, CA

      fairy lantern n 1 • CA

      fairy lantern n 2 • CA, Pacific NW

      fester v • chiefly Inland Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP and Map Section)

      fiesta n • chiefly SW, esp CA, TX

      fiesta flower n • CA

      filione n • CA

      fix v B7 • scattered, but chiefly Atlantic, Gt Lakes, CA (MAP)

      flattop n 2 • esp CA

      fly-fish n • CA

      fly-flower n • CA

      footsteps-of-spring n • esp CA

      free gold n • chiefly CA

      French frog n • CA, NV

      fuss v C5 • chiefly Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP)

      gallito n 1 • CA

      garrupa n • CA

      globe lily n • esp CA

      go-ahead n 1 • chiefly CA, HI

      golden fleece n • esp CA

      gold fields n 1 • esp CA

      goldwire n • CA

      gopher plant n 1 • esp CA

      gopher snake n 1 • chiefly West, esp CA, AZ (MAP)

      grape stake n • West, esp CA

      grassnut n 2 • chiefly CA

      grease ant n • chiefly N Cent, Upper MW, CA (MAP)

      greasewood n 2c • CA

      greasewood n 2d • CA

      green corn n 2 • scattered, but esp eNEng, Gt Lakes, sCA (MAP)

      gulch n 1 • scattered, but esp CA (MAP)

      gum plant n 3 • CA

      gum tree n 3 • CA

      gumweed n 2 • esp CA

      halibut n B2 • sCA

      Hangtown fry n • CA, WA

      header n 1 • chiefly West, esp CA (MAP)

      hen and chickens n 1a(2) • chiefly CA

      hickory pine n 1 • esp CA

      high fog n • chiefly wCA

      hog dollar n • chiefly nCA

      hoity-toity adj • esp Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP)

      horse mackerel n 3 • CA

      hunter n 2 • scattered, but chiefly Nth, CA (MAP)

      ice plant n 1 • orig CA, now more widespread

      Indian thistle n 2 • CA, Pacific NW

      Italian squash n • scattered, but esp CA, SW

      jackass brandy n • scattered, but esp CA

      jacksnipe n 5 • CA

      jacksnipe n 6 • CA

      jelly doughnut n • widespread, but esp freq NEast, S Atl, CA (MAP)

      jewfish n 1d • CA

      johnny-nip n • esp CA

      johnny-tuck n • chiefly CA

      Johnny verde n • CA

      jota n • esp CA, sID, eOR

      kelpfish n b • CA

      kingfish n 3 • CA

      kisses n 2 • CA

      Klamath weed n • chiefly CA

      laguna n • chiefly TX, CA

      laurel n 5 • esp OR, CA

      lily bell n 1 • CA

      linnet n 4 • West, esp CA

      littleneck n 3 • CA

      little sugar pine n • CA

      live-forever n 4 • chiefly CA

      lizard tail n 2 • CA

      madrone n • chiefly CA

      mahala n • chiefly CA

      mahogany n 2c • CA

      mariposa lily n • esp CA

      marsh sparrow n 2 • CA

      maul oak n • esp CA

      meadow foam n • chiefly CA

      meadowsweet n 3 • CA

      medialuna n • CA

      mesa oak n • CA

      Mexican goose n 1b • esp CA

      milquetoast n • chiefly Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP)

      miner’s consumption n • chiefly West, esp CA, NV, CO (MAP)

      mission bells n • West, esp CA

      mock orange n 2b • chiefly CA

      monkey bite n 1 • chiefly CA, also C and S Atl (MAP)

      Monterey halibut n • c,sCA coast

      moronel n • CA

      mosquito bill n • esp CA

      mountain balm n 2 • chiefly CA

      mountain cat n 3 • CA

      mountain jay n 1 • West, esp CA

      mountain laurel n 3 • chiefly CA

      mountain live oak n • CA

      mountain oak n b • West, esp CA

      mountain pride n • chiefly CA

      mule fat n • CA

      mush oak n • CA

      musk clover n • esp CA

      nigger heaven n 1 • chiefly Nth, Plains States, Rocky Mts, CA (MAP)

      niggertoe n 3 • esp CA

      Okie n • chiefly Pacific, esp CA (MAP)

      one-foot-off-the-gutter n • CA

      oven n 2 • chiefly NEast, OH, MI, CA (MAP)

      pachuco n • SW, esp sCA, TX

      Pacific deer n • CA

      panguingue n • AK, NW, CA

      parada n • CA, OR, NV

      parking n 2a • chiefly NW, Plains States, IA; also N Cent, sCA (MAP)

      pea n1 3 • CA

      pedro n (pronc) • chiefly Inland Nth (exc Upper MW, NW), CA (MAP)

      pelican flower n 2 • CA

      pennyroyal n B3 • esp CA

      pepper tree n • CA

      pepperwood n 1 • CA

      periwinkle n2 2 • chiefly Pacific NW, CA

      pigeonberry n 7 • CA

      Piker n1 • chiefly Pacific Coast, esp CA

      pin clover n • esp CA

      pine violet n • esp CA

      pink bean n • esp CA

      pitcher sage n • CA

      pitch pine n c(3) • CA

      pitch pine n c(5) • CA

      pocket n 4 • West, esp CA, NV

      pogy n 5 • ceCA, cwNV

      poison-oaker n • esp CA

      polenta n • formerly esp CA, but now more widely recognized (MAP)

      pompano n 2 • chiefly CA

      pom-pom-pullaway n • chiefly Gt Lakes, Upper MW, Plains States, Rocky Mts, sCA (MAP)

      popcorn flower n • esp CA

      pope’s nose n 1 • scattered, but esp Nth, N Midl, CA, TX (MAP)

      porky n2 • chiefly Nth, nCA (MAP)

      Portuguese n, adj • esp sNEng, CA, HI Portagee, Porte(r)gee, Portug(u)ee, Portyg(h)ee (MAP)

      potato bug n 4 • CA

      potrero n 1 • chiefly CA

      prickly phlox n • esp CA

      prince’s pine n 1 • esp CA, NW

      pro-hi n 1 • scattered, but esp CA

      pug n • chiefly NEng, wGt Lakes, CA (MAP)

      puncture vine n • West, esp CA (MAP)

      punt n • scattered, but esp Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP)

      rancheria grass n • esp CA

      rattlesnake weed n 1h • esp CA

      red-bellied hawk n • CA

      red gum n 2 • CA

      red racer n • esp CA

      red sage n 1 • chiefly CA

      redwood n 2 • orig CA, now widespread

      refried beans n pl • orig chiefly sCA, but now widely recognized (MAP)

      riffle n1 • chiefly West, esp CA

      riffle, make the v phr • orig chiefly West, esp CA; later more widespread

      ring-tailed cat n • esp CA, TX

      ripgut n 2 • esp CA

      roble n • esp CA

      rock bass n 2 • CA

      rock cod n 3 • esp CA

      rock rattlesnake n c • CA

      rodeo n (pronc) • esp CA, SW |ˌroˈde-o|

      romero n • CA

      rooster head n 2 • esp CA

      rubber boa n • West, esp CA

      sailor’s caps n • CA

      salsa n • orig CA, SW, but now widely recognized

      sand bass n 1 • CA

      sandburr n 2b • esp CA

      Santa Ana n • chiefly sCA (MAP)

      sea bass n 2 • chiefly CA

      sea spinach n • CA

      *see v B3a • widespread, but less freq NEast, Gt Lakes, CA (MAP)

      shovel-nosed shark n 2 • CA

      skew- pref a • chiefly Nth, CA (MAP)

      skew- pref c • esp Gt Lakes, CA (MAP)

      skibby n • chiefly CA, Pacific NW

      skipjack n 1k • esp CA, HI

      slash n2 • chiefly Nth, nCA

      slim Solomon n • esp CA

      slippery elm n 2 • CA

      sluice n • chiefly West, esp CA, AR

      smelt n 2a • CA

      snail n • esp CA (MAP)

      snipe v 2 • chiefly AK, CA

      soap plant n 1 • esp CA

      soap plant n 4 • CA

      soaproot n 1 • esp CA

      Southland n • sCA

      *sowbelly n • widespread, but less freq N and Mid Atl, PA, c,sCA (MAP)

      spikeweed n • esp CA

      splatter-ass n • CA, NV, OR

      squato n • CA

      squirrel hawk n 1 • esp CA

      star tulip n • esp CA

      steam beer n • orig chiefly CA, now widely known

      stinkbug n b(3) • esp CA

      stobber n 2 • CA

      striped bass n 1 • scattered, but chiefly Atlantic, Lower Missip Valley, CA (MAP)

      sundowner n 2 • sCA

      tamale n1 • orig chiefly SW, CA, but now widely recognized (MAP)

      tamale pie n • orig chiefly SW, esp CA; now more widely recognized (MAP)

      tamarack n 2 • esp CA

      thimbleberry n • chiefly NEast, Gt Lakes, NW, nCA (MAP)

      three-step n • chiefly Gt Lakes, NW, CA (MAP)

      tiger lily n • chiefly Nth, N Midl, nCA (MAP)

      timber rattlesnake n 2 • chiefly CA

      to prep B1c • scattered, but chiefly Nth, N Midl, CA (MAP and Map Section)

      tomcod n 2b(2) • CA

      *trace n2 • widespread, but less freq Inland Nth, Cent, Rocky Mts, nCA (MAP)

      tree poppy n 2 • CA

      tree yucca n • chiefly CA

      tule n 1 • chiefly Pacific (esp CA), SW

      tule n 2 • chiefly Pacific, esp CA (MAP)

      tule fog n • chiefly CA

      tule mint n • CA

      tule potato n • CA

      tule rooter n 1 • CA

      tuna n1 • West, esp TX, CA

      turkey mullein n • chiefly CA

      Turkish rugging n • CA

      valley fever n • SW, esp CA

      valley jay n • CA

      vino n • chiefly Nth, N Midl, West, esp CA (MAP)

      white perch n 6 • CA

      wild alfalfa n 1 • CA

      wild anise n 1 • CA

      wild lettuce n 4 • CA

      wild lilac n 1 • CA

      wild onion n 2a • CA

      windmill pink n • esp CA

      wishbone bush n • esp CA

      witch v • chiefly N Cent, Cent, nCA (MAP)

      witches' teeth n • CA

      wokas n • chiefly sOR, nCA

      wriggler n 1 • esp Inland Nth, PA, CA (MAP)

      yellow broom n 2 • esp CA

      yellowtail rockfish n • chiefly CA

      you betcha adv phr • chiefly Nth, N Midl, CA, TX; now esp Upper MW, NW (MAP)

      zanja n • sCA, AZ

      zanjero n • sCA, AZ

calque; also loan translation 

      all both pron • [Perh an African calque..]

      all two adj, pron, conj • [..prob calques..]

      alphabet n • [Calque from Japanese or Korean..]

      already adv B1 • [Calque: through PaGer from Ger schon already, yet, so far]

already adv B2 • [Calque: ult from Ger schon as transmitted independently by PaGer schun and Yidd shoyn]

      angels on horseback n pl • [Loan-transl of Fr anges à cheval..]

      battle n2 • [Calque from Fr bataille battle, a card game]

      be v B2a(3) • [Loan transl from Ger Ich bin]

      burn v B7 • [Cantonese calque]

      cook v 1 • [Prob calque from Ger kochen, Sw koka, Nor koke,..]

      cook cheese n • [Calque from Ger Kochkäse]

      crack one’s teeth v phr • [Afr calque..]

      crack seed n • [Chinese calque]

      cut-eye n, v • [..prob loan transl of an Afr idiom..]

      dress around v phr • [Calque..]

      dress out v phr • [Calque..]

      eat oneself (done) v phr • [Calque from PaGer..]

      eye n2 • [Calque from Haw maka mesh..]

      fire v C1b • [Calque from Haw ahi n “fire,” v “to burn”]

      first breakfast n • [Perh calque < Ger erstes Frühstück..]

      give v B1 • calque of Ger geben to give

      groundhog n 1 • [Perh calque from Du aertoercken arch var of aardvarken..”earth pig”] (MAP)

      hand cheese n • [Calque of handkäse]

      house blessing n • [Calque of Ger Haussegen wall text]

      jalousie n • [..the form jealousy..is either a calque or folk-etym]

      keep v B4 • [Calque of PaGer uf(f)halde]

      land rain n • [Calque of Ger Landregen (PaGer landrejje, landregge) a steady rain]

      little n C2 • [Calque of Ger von klein auf (or an), PaGer vun glee uff]

      live-forever n 3 • [Calque of the generic Sempervivum..]

      liver sausage n • [Calque of Ger leberwurst] (MAP)

      liverwurst n • [Partial calque of Ger Leberwurst] (MAP)

      lock open v phr • [Calque of PaGer uffschliesse, Ger aufschliessen]

      longsome adj • [Prob calque of Ger langsam slow..]

      look v B6 • [Calque of PaGer..]

      lost bread n • [Calque of Fr pain perdu]

      make v1 C18 • [Calque of Fr faire]

      make v1 D24 • [Calque of PaGer wacker mache]

      make v1 D27 • [Calque of PaGer..]

      make v1 D32 • [Calques of Ger zumachen, as in “Mach die Tür zu!”]

      make down v phr 3 • [Calque of PaGer..]

      make out v phr 3 • [Calque of Ger ausmachen..]

      make out v phr 6 • [Calque of Ger ausmachen]

      me pron 5 • [Calque of Fr constr]

      on prep B12a • [Prob calque of Ger auf, an]

      on prep B12b • [Usu calque of Ger an;..perh calque of Haw ma on, at]

      once adv B • [Prob calque of Ger einmal, but cf EDD] 

      owl’s claws n • [Calque of the Navaho name..]

      paint adj • [Calque from AmSpan pinto spotted..] (MAP)

      pan-rabbit n • [Calque from panhas]

      pass v 3 • [Calque of Fr passer]

      Pele’s hair n • [Calque of Haw lauoho o Pele..]

      Pele’s tear n • [Calque of Haw waimaka o Pele..]

      peppernut n • [Calque of pfeffernuss..]

      potato sausage n • [Calque of Sw potatiskorv]

      rainworm n 1 • [..prob calque of Ger Regenwurm]

      reach v1 B3 • [Prob calque of PaGer reeche, Ger reichen..]

      refried beans n pl • [Calque of MexSpan frijoles refritos] (MAP)

      sacred bark n • [Calque of AmSpan cascara sagrada]

      save v B2 • [Calque of LaFr sauver..]

second Christmas (Day) n • [Calque of Ger zweiter Weihnachtstag, PaGer zwette Grischdâk, or Du tweede Kerstdag]

      sheep buck n • [Calque of Ger Schafbock]

      sheepshead n 5 • [Calque of schafskopf] (MAP)

      shoespoon n • [Calque of Ger Schuhlöffel]

      shunning n • [Calque of Ger Meidung]

      snake guarder n • [Calque of PaGer schlangehieter]

      snake heeder n • [Partial calque of PaGer schlangehieter, literally ``snake guarder'']

      sow and pigs n • [..a calque of Ger Sauball for the same game] (MAP)

      stable n 1 • [..primarily a calque of Ger Schweinestall < Stall..]

      stand v 2 • [Prob calque of var foreign idioms..]

      stand v 3 • [Calque of an idiom found in most Germanic languages other than English]

      stand up v phr • [Calque of Ger aufstehen..]

      still adv 2 • [Calque of..PaGer..advs..based on obs still continually, invariably..]

      stink cheese n • [Calque (and partial calque) of PaGer schtinkkaes..]

      straw widow n • [Prob calque of Ger Strohwitwe]

      swan potato n • [Calque of the name in Ojibway..]

      sweetwood n 2 • [Calque of Ger Süßholz (PaGer siesshols)]

      thick milk n • [Prob calque of PaGer dickemilich or Ger Dickmilch..] (MAP)

      three-foot n • [Calque of PaGer Dreifuss]

      tie loose v phr • [Calque of Ger losbinden (PaGer losbinne)]

      till prep B4 • [Mostly calque of (Pa)Ger bis (prep, conj) till, by (the time that)..]

      till conj C2 • [Calque of (Pa)Ger bis..]

      to prep B5 • [Calque from Ger zu..]

      toe n1 1 • [Prob calque of Ger Zeh toe, clove (of garlic)]

      trembling earth n • [Calque of Seminole okefinokee]

      under through prep phr • [Calque of PaGer or Du; see quots]

      water out v phr 2 • [Prob calque of Norw utvanne]

      water smeller n • [Calques of Ger Wasserschmecker, Wasserriecher]

      what for (a) adj phr • [In some areas obviously a calque of Ger was für (ein)..]

      wildcat grass n • [Appar calque of LaFr paille (à) chat-tigre]

      wildfire n • [..here a calque of PaGer wildfeier (Ger Wildfeuer)]

      wolfbean n • [Calque of Ger Wolf(s)bohne..]

      wolf grape n • [Calque of Arabic name for a species of Solanum..]

      wonder v1 1 • [..in the majority of quots they are clearly calques of PaGer idioms..]

      year v2 • [Calque of PaGer sich jaehre to have one's birthday anniversary]

      yet adv, conj B4 • [Prob calque of Ger (and PaGer) doch]

Canadian; Dictionary of Canadianisms

      appola n • [Cf DCan appalat in similar sense, from French apala titbit..]

      babiche n • [..DCan 1806➝]

      baboune n 2 • (Cf DCan)

      back forty, the n • Cf DCan

      baked-apple berry n • [..DCan 1775➝]

      banker n 2 • [DCan 1777➝]

      bateau n B • (Cf DCan..)

      berlot n • Cf DCan

      bluenose n 1 • Cf DCan

      bluff n1 b • [..cf DCan]

      booshway n • Cf DCan booshway

      booya n • [..see DCan bouillon]

      broom ball n • [Cf DCan 1933➝]

      brulé n 1 • Cf DCan

      Canada bird n • [DCan 1866➝]

      Canada corn n • [DCan 1819➝]

      Canada jay n • [DCan 1772➝]

      Canada lynx n • [DCan 1820➝]

      Canadian dogwood n • [DCan 1947➝]

      Canadian thistle n 1 • [DCan 1822➝]

      Canuck n • See also DCan (MAP)

      carcajou n 1 • [DCan 1703➝]

      cheater n 2 • See also DCan

      chinook n B1 • [DCan 1833➝]

      choo intj • Cf DCan choo a call to sled dogs

      chuck n4 • [..DCan 1860➝]

      coho salmon n • [..DCan 1808➝]

      deacon seat n 2 • Cf DCan

      dew worm n • [Prob from CanEngl (DCan 1889➝)..] (MAP)

      dogan n • [..DCan dogan 1854➝]

      dog driver n 1 • [DCan 1857➝]

      dog musher n • Cf DCan

      end town n • [Cf DCan end of steel a. 2, end-of-steel town]

      Ephraim n • Cf DCan

      fobs n pl • [..cf Can fobble (DN 1.388)]

      fog mull n • Cf DCan

      frost boil n 1 • Cf..DCan

      galette n • [Fr “(sea) biscuit”; DCan 1843➝]

      gee pole n • Cf DCan

      golden eagle n • [DCan 1784➝]

      gore n1 • Cf DCan

      ground cedar n 2 • [DCan 1832➝..]

      ground chuck n • [..DCan “Obs.”]

      ground juniper n • [DCan 1793➝]

      habitant n • [..DCan 1789➝]

      ice-out n • Cf DCan

      ice worm n • Cf DCan

      inconnu n • [..DCan 1806 ➝]

      Indian breadroot n • [..DCan 1852 ➝]

      Indian devil n 2 • [DCan 1853 ➝]

      jackpot n 1 • [DCan 1887 ➝..]

      kokanee (salmon) n • Cf DCan

      land otter n • [DCan 1828 ➝]

      lowbush cranberry n • [DCan 1833 ➝]

      lucivee n • [..cf DCan loup-cervier 1744 ➝; lucivee 1774 ➝]

      lush n • Cf DCan

      mal de raquette n • [..DCan 1821]

      Manitoba maple n • Cf DCan

      maple bush n • Cf DCan

      maple camp n • Cf DCan

      maple molasses n • Cf DCan

      maria n • [DCan 1909 ➝]

      marsh hare n • [DCan 1930]

      marsh hawk n 1 • [DCan 1772 ➝]

      marsh rat n 2 • [DCan c1902]

      meadow hen n 2 • [DCan 1896]

      memaloose adj, n • Cf DCan (at mamaloos)

      methy n • [..DCan 1743 ➝]

      metis n • Cf DCan

      moccasin telegraph n • Cf..DCan

      mooseberry n • [DCan 1789 ➝]

      moosemise n 1 • [DCan 1861 ➝]

      moose shank n • Cf DCan

      moss heather n • Cf DCan

      mountain cat n 1 • [DCan c1665 ➝ for the lynx]

      mouse bush n • [Cf..DCan mouse ear..]

      muck n1 2 • [DCan 1897 (in placer mining)]

      mush v2 • Cf DCan

      muskeg n • [CanEngl < Algonquian (Ojibway mashkig, Cree mashkek)]

      muskellunge n • [..DCan (at maskinonge) 1761 ➝]

      neck v 2 • Cf DCan

      nitchie n • Cf DCan

      paring bee n • Cf DCan

      pathmaster n • [DCan 1799 ➝]

      pea soup n 2 • [DCan peasoup a French Canadian..]

      pigeonberry n 2 • [DCan 1822 ➝..]

      pine marten n • [DCan 1772 ➝]

      pin-tailed grouse n • [DCan pintail grouse 1819 ➝]

      plank road n • [DCan 1839 ➝]

      rampike n • Cf DCan

      rat n 1 • [DCan 1584 ➝] (MAP)

      redberry n k • [DCan 1933, 1953]

      red pine n 1a • [DCan 1767 ➝]

      red salmon n • [DCan 1859 ➝]

      red willow n • [DCan 1743 ➝]

      Red River maple n • [DCan 1887 ➝ for Acer negundo]

      rock elm n 1 • [DCan 1830 ➝]

      salt banking vbl n • Cf..DCan salt-banker, DNE salt trip

      saltchuck n • Cf..DCan

      saskatoon n • [Of Algonquian orig;..DCan 1810 ➝]

      silver thaw n • [DCan 1770 ➝]

      skidway n b • Cf DCan skidway 1a, b

      skookum adj • Cf DCan

      skookum n • Cf DCan

      skookum chuck n • Cf ..DCan

      skookum house n • Cf DCan

      sleigh n 2 • Cf ..DCan (MAP)

      sloven n • [Of eCanadian origin < Ir sleamhnán sledge]

      snake room n • Cf DCan

      spike pitcher n • [..cf DCan]

      spruce partridge n • [DCan 1771 ➝]

      squaw hitch n 1 • [DCan 1887 ➝]

      stinking willie n 1 • [A Scots name..used also in eCanada..]

      stubble jumper n • Cf..DCan

      stump logging n • [Cf DCan stumper quot 1908 ‘‘Many trees..would drop right into water from the stumps when felled’’]

      stump ranch n • [DCan stump ranch 1919, stump rancher 1963]

      sugary n • [DCan 1832 ➝; transl of CanFr sucrerie]

      Swede n 3 • [..cf DCan]

      teaberry n 1 • [DCan 1796] (MAP)

      tillicum n • Cf DCan

      timber wolf n 1 • [DCan 1860 ➝]

      tin dog n • [..also DCan tin dog 1953]

      togue n • [Cf DCan]

      traineau n • Cf DCan

      tuladi n • [DCan 1846 ➝..]

      tullibee n • [DCan 1789 ➝]

      tumpline n • Cf DCan

      tuque n • [CanFr tuque < Fr toque;..DCan 1882 ➝]

      twinberry n 2 • [DCan 1823 ➝]

      velvet duck n • [DCan 1823 for Melanitta fusca..]

      wanigan n • Cf DCan

      wavey n • Cf..DCan

      whiskey jack n • [..cf DCan] (MAP)

      whistling duck n 1 • Cf DCan

      willow grouse n 1 • [DCan 1823 ➝]

      willow grouse n 4 • [DCan 1907 ➝]

      Winnipeg goldeye n • [DCan 1954 ➝]

      wire birch n • [DCan 1917 ➝]

Canadian French See French, Canadian

Cantonese

     burn v B7 • [Cantonese calque] 

      pake n, adj • [Prob < Cantonese dial..]

      sai-min n • [Prob Cantonese..]

Cape Cod See Massachusetts, Cape Cod

Carib; Island Carib

      caouane n • [AmFr caouane ..Cf AmSpan caguama < Carib..]

      coco plum n • [coco, from Span icaco, ult from Island Carib hikáku..]

      latanier n • [Fr latanier, ult of Carib origin]

Cariban

      chigger n • [Alter of Cariban chigoe]

      periagua n • [Varr of Span , ult of Cariban origin]

      pirogue n • [Fr < Span piragua, of Cariban origin] (MAP)

Caribbean; Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage

      apple banana n • [..name prob adopted with the fruit from the Caribbean..]

      broadus n • [..=Caribbean creole braata..]

      cut-eye n, v • [Caribbean Creole..]

      poppy show n • [..widespread in Caribbean and W Afr creoles..]

      soul-case n • Cf DCEU..

      stay v 3 • Cf..DCEU stay 3, 4

      suck one's teeth v phr • vocal “gesture”..in Black cultures in Africa, the Caribbean, and the US

      suck-teeth n • [Cf DJE, DCEU]

      thrash hut n • [Cf..DCEU trash n1 2...]

      tow v • Cf.. DCEU

      ugly n D1a • [This proverb appears to be widespread in the Caribbean: cf DCEU, DJE (1803 ➝).]

      what make (so) adv phr • Cf..DCEU wha[t]1 2.8

      what side adv phr • Cf DBE, DJE (at what side), DCEU (at wisside)

      wonder-of-the-world root n • [..in parts of the Caribbean the..name is applied to..Kalanchoe pinnata.]

Catawba

      yaupon n • [yopún dimin of Catawba yop tree]

Celtic

      muley adj, n2 • [..ult of Celtic origin...]

      mull adj, n1 • [..ult of Celtic origin]

Central

      -a • chiefly wNEng south through NC (exc NYC and Philadelphia areas), Cent and SW

      belly-buster n, adv 2 • chiefly Sth, W Midl, Cent (MAP and Map Section)

      black man n 2 • chiefly N Cent, Cent (MAP)

      blister bug n • chiefly TX, Cent (MAP)

      bull nettle n 1 • chiefly N Cent, Cent, TX, LA (MAP)

      burg n • scattered, but esp N Cent, Cent (MAP)

      burr n1 3 • chiefly Cent, Missip-Ohio Valleys, TX (MAP)

      burr oak n • chiefly N Cent, Upper MW, Cent (MAP)

      cat and mouse n 1 • chiefly Upper MW, WI, Cent (MAP)

      chat n3 • Cent

      civvy cat n • chiefly SW, Cent

      democrat bug n • Upper Missip Valley, Cent

      doodlebug n 6b • chiefly Gulf States, Cent, N Midl (MAP)

      *dray n 2 • widespread, but less freq S Midl, Cent

      dry-land turtle n • chiefly Sth, S Midl, Cent, SW (MAP and Map Section)

      everlasting yeast n • chiefly Cent, TX (MAP)

      extension club n • chiefly Cent, N Cent

      farm-to-market road n • scattered, but chiefly Sth, Cent (MAP)

      fishworm n • widespread, but more freq Nth, N Midl, Cent (MAP)

      fool v 1b • scattered, but chiefly S Midl, Gulf States, Cent (MAP)

      fraid hole n • chiefly Cent

      French harp n 1 • chiefly W Midl, TX, Cent (MAP)

      fresno n 2 • chiefly West, Cent

      hard-shell turtle n • chiefly N Cent, Cent, Gulf States (MAP)

      hedge n • chiefly N Cent, Cent (MAP)

      hog wire n • scattered, but esp S Atl, Gulf States, Cent (MAP)

      holiness adj • chiefly Sth, Midl, Cent (MAP)

      kinfolk n pl • widespread, but chiefly Sth, S Midl, Cent, TX (MAP)

      knot n1 3 • chiefly Sth, Midl, Cent (MAP)

      literary n • chiefly Cent

      lumber wagon n • chiefly Nth, Cent (MAP)

      monkey stove n • chiefly Cent

      *nanny n1 • scattered exc nNEng, Upper MW, Cent (MAP)

      parasol n B1 • scattered, but chiefly Sth, S Midl, Cent, TX (MAP)

      peony n1 2 (pronc) • chiefly Cent, Mid Atl, S Midl, NEng (MAP)

      pill n 1 • scattered, but chiefly NCent, Cent, West (MAP)

      pine snake n 1 • chiefly Mid and S Atl, Cent

      pitch n2 1 • chiefly NEng, Upstate NY, Delmarva, Missip Valley, Cent (MAP)

      pitchfork n 3c • chiefly N Cent, Missip Valley, Cent (MAP)

      pound party n 1 • chiefly Midl, Cent

      *quits exclam • scattered, but less freq Sth, S Midl, SW, Cent (MAP)

      scissortail n 1 • esp TX, Cent (MAP)

      scoop shovel n 1 • esp Cent, Upper MW

      scour v • chiefly N Cent, Upper MW, Cent

      silk-stocking n attrib • scattered, but esp Gulf States, TX, Cent, Upper Missip Valley (MAP)

      smartweed n • widespread, but chiefly Midl, N Cent, Cent (MAP)

      snap v 2a • esp Upper MW, Cent

      *snowing down South, it's phr • widespread, but less freq Sth, Cent (MAP)

      socks, throw up one's v phr • scattered, but esp Cent, TX (MAP)

      soddy n 1 • chiefly Cent, esp KS, NE

      sooey exclam • chiefly Sth, S Midl, Cent, TX (MAP)

      straight wind n • esp Cent (MAP)

      striped wasp n • esp Cent (MAP)

      sun perch n • chiefly S Midl, Lower Missip Valley, Cent (MAP)

      sweat bee n 1 • chiefly Midl, Gt Lakes, Cent (MAP)

      *trace n2 • widespread, but less freq Inland Nth, Cent, Rocky Mts, nCA (MAP)

      trailer truck n • chiefly east of Missip R, esp NEast; also TX, Cent (MAP and Map Section)

      trotline n 1 • chiefly Gulf States, W Midl, Cent, TX, SC (MAP)

      tush n C1 • formerly widespread, now chiefly Sth, W Midl, Cent, TX; scattered NEast, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      velvet-tail n 1 • esp Cent; also AL

      wear v B3b • scattered, but esp Sth, S Midl, Cent (MAP)

      whaley n 1 • chiefly Cent, S Midl

      who laid the chunk phr • chiefly TX, Cent

      wild alfalfa n 2 • chiefly Cent, Upper MW

      witch v • chiefly N Cent, Cent, nCA (MAP)

      work v 3 • chiefly Sth, S Midl, Cent (MAP)

Central African See African, Central

Central Atlantic

      alewife n • chiefly C Atl, N Atl, Gt Lakes

      amongst you pron • chiefly C Atl

      Anthony-over n, exclam • chiefly C Atl, N Midl

      antymire n • chiefly N Atl, C Atl, sAppalachians

      baitfish n • chiefly Atl, esp C Atl, N Atl

      barefooted adj 1 • chiefly Mid and C Atl, Ohio Valley (MAP)

      barrack n • chiefly NY, C Atl

      bateau n B2 • chiefly C and S Atl, Gulf States (MAP)

      be v B2a(3) • chiefly C Atl

      belly-whopper n, v, adv 2 • chiefly Nth, N Midl, esp NY, C Atl (MAP and Map Section)

      black drum n • chiefly C and S Atl

      black duck n 1 • chiefly NEast, Mid and C Atl (MAP)

      blackfish n 1 • chiefly N and C Atl

      blackfish n 2 • chiefly Mid and C Atl

      black frost n 1 • chiefly NEast, Gt Lakes, C and S Atl, CA (MAP)

      black will n • C Atl

      bloodworm n 1 • chiefly C and Mid Atl (MAP)

      breeze v • chiefly N Atl, C Atl

      brethren n pl B • chiefly C Atl and Ohio River Valley

      buck bathing pple, vbl n • C Atl coast

      buffalo n B1 • chiefly C Atl, NC (MAP)

      bugeye n2 • chiefly C Atl coast, esp Chesapeake Bay (MAP)

      bunker n1 • N and C Atl

      buzzard n • esp C Atl

      cake turner n • chiefly C Atl, eN Midl (MAP)

      can n 3c • chiefly NEast, N Cent, C Atl (MAP)

      certain adv B1 • esp NEng, also C and S Atl

      chicory n 1 • chiefly Nth, C Atl

      chowder n 1 • orig and chiefly NEng, now also Nth, CA, C Atl (MAP)

      co-ee v phr • chiefly C Atl, S Atl

      count n • chiefly C Atl

      coy v • C Atl

      crack n 2 • chiefly NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      crow duck n 2 • esp C Atl

      cruller n • scattered, but chiefly NEast, N Cent, C Atl (MAP)

      diamondback terrapin n • chiefly C and S Atl

      dog fly n 1 • chiefly C and S Atl, AL (MAP)

      double bar n • esp C Atl

      double singletree n • scattered, but esp C and S Atl (MAP)

      *doughball n 2 • scattered, but less freq NEast, C and S Atl, Pacific (MAP)

      drain n1 C1 • scattered, but esp Mid and C Atl (MAP)

      dry wall n • chiefly NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      dual highway n • scattered, but chiefly Mid and C Atl (MAP)

      eel rack n • C and N Atl

      English walnut n • chiefly N and C Atl, CA

      escarole n • chiefly N and C Atl

      fastland n • chiefly C Atl coast

      *faucet n B1 • formerly chiefly Nth; now widespread, but less freq Mid and C Atl

      field hawk n • chiefly SE, C Atl

      fisherman n 1 • chiefly C Atl coast

      five-and-ten n 1 • widespread, but more freq NEast, C Atl

      fresh n 3 • C Atl

      fyke n • orig chiefly NY, NEng; now chiefly C Atl coast

      garvey n • chiefly C Atl coast, esp NJ

      get up there v phr • scattered, but esp N Cent, C Atl (MAP)

      G.I. haircut n • scattered, but more freq C and Mid Atl, SE (MAP)

      grandma n A6 • chiefly C Atl (MAP)

      grandpa n A5 • scattered, but chiefly C Atl, NY (MAP)

      grass sack n • chiefly C Atl, Lower Missip Valley, Ohio Valley (MAP)

      grassy adj • chiefly C Atl (MAP)

      guano sack n • chiefly C and S Atl

      guinea keet n 1 • esp C Atl

      gust n • esp C Atl

      hairy head n • chiefly C and S Atl

      hamburg n 1 • chiefly NEast, C Atl, OH, MI (MAP)

      hang v B2 • scattered, but esp C Atl, Ohio Valley (MAP)

      haul v 1 • chiefly N and C Atl

      hay barrack n • chiefly NEast, C Atl

      heaves n pl • widespread, but more freq NEast, N Cent, C Atl (MAP)

      hedgehog n 2 • chiefly NEast, C Atl

      hickory poplar n • chiefly C and Mid Atl

      *highway n • widespread, but less freq N Cent, NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      high yellow n • scattered, but chiefly C and S Atl, Gulf States (MAP)

      hogchoker n • esp C and Mid Atl

      holey adj • esp S Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      horse stable n • chiefly NEast, C Atl, eGt Lakes (MAP)

      howsomever adv 1 • scattered, but chiefly S and C Atl, S Midl

      huckster n • scattered, but chiefly N Midl, C Atl, NEast exc nNEng (MAP)

      hummock n 3 • C Atl

      kernel n 1 • chiefly C and S Atl; also Gulf States (MAP and Map Section)

      kick v B3 • esp C Atl, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      kiln n • esp C Atl, Lower Missip Valley (MAP)

      kindling n • esp N and C Atl

      king n 2 • esp N and C Atl (MAP)

      *kitchen broom n • scattered, but less freq C and Mid Atl, SE (MAP)

      land frog n • chiefly Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      land turtle n • scattered, but chiefly N Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      lark n1 1 • scattered, but chiefly C and S Atl

      levy n1 • chiefly C Atl

      local preacher n • scattered, but chiefly Sth, S Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      log cart n • esp C and S Atl (MAP)

      loggerhead n 3 • chiefly Inland Nth, N Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      log wagon • scattered, but esp Lower Missip Valley, Ohio Valley, C Atl (MAP)

      long drawers n pl • scattered, but chiefly SE, C Atl, seNY (MAP)

      long jeans n pl • scattered, but esp C Atl, NEast (MAP)

      longshat pine n • C Atl

      low beam n • chiefly Nth, N Midl, C Atl, West (MAP)

      ma n A3 (pronc) • esp SC, C Atl (MAP)

      marsh rabbit n 2 • chiefly C Atl, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      meat platter n • chiefly N Cent, N Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      monkey bite n 1 • chiefly CA, also C and S Atl (MAP)

      mouth organ n 1 • widespread, but chiefly Inland Nth, C Atl; also S Atl, SW (MAP and Map Section)

      *mumblety-peg n 2 • widespread, but less freq NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      musquash n • chiefly C and N Atl, esp NEng

      necessary n • scattered, but chiefly NEng, Mid and C Atl

      newground n 1a • chiefly C and S Atl, Gulf States (MAP)

      newsy adj • chiefly C Atl, esp PA

      nigger pine n 1 • chiefly C and Mid Atl, sAppalachians

      *out n F2a • scattered exc NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      oyster-cracker n 2 • C Atl

      parlor n B1 • scattered, but esp C Atl, N Cent, NW (MAP)

      pattypan squash n • scattered, but esp C Atl (MAP)

      pavement n • scattered, but chiefly C Atl, esp sePA; also Gulf States

      peanut heaven n • chiefly OH, PA, C Atl (MAP)

      penknife n • chiefly N Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      *picture show n • widespread, but less freq NEast, C Atl, Pacific (MAP)

      pine barren n • C and S Atl

      pipe, take the v phr • esp NYC, C Atl (MAP)

      piss-a-bed n 1 • chiefly C and N Atl exc NEng (MAP)

      plant v 3 • esp N and C Atl coast

      pluck n 1 • esp NEast, C Atl

      *Podunk n 1 • scattered, but less freq C and S Atl, West (MAP)

      pooey exclam • chiefly Missip-Ohio Valleys, Upper MW; also C Atl (MAP)

      *potluck meal n • widespread, but less freq Sth, C Atl, NY (MAP and Map Section)

      powder room n • scattered, but more freq C Atl, Midl (MAP)

      punk n2 2 • formerly chiefly N and C Atl; now esp PA (MAP)

      railbird n • chiefly N and C Atl

      rams n • chiefly C Atl (MAP)

      *rattlesnake n 1 • widespread, but less freq Inland Nth, N Midl, C Atl (MAP)

      reedbird n 1 • esp C Atl (MAP)

      Robin Hood’s barn, go (all the way) around v phr • scattered, but chiefly Nth, N Midl, C Atl, WV (MAP)

      rock n1 5 • chiefly Upper Missip and Ohio Valleys, C and S Atl (MAP)

      rockfish n 1 • chiefly C and S Atl

      rotten adj 1 • scattered, but esp C Atl, N Cent (MAP)

      round potato n • esp C Atl

      route n A1 (pronc) • chiefly NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      route n B1 • chiefly NEast, WV, OH, IL, C Atl (MAP and Map Section)

      rum-dum n 1 • scattered, but esp NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      rummy n 1 • chiefly NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      *running off (at the bowels) n • widespread exc NEast, C Atl, Gt Lakes (MAP)

      saddle horse n • scattered, but esp C and Mid Atl (MAP)

      sandburr n 1 • chiefly West, Upper MW, N Cent, C Atl

      sandworm n • chiefly N and C Atl

      sawmill, born in a adj phr • chiefly NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      *scoot v 2 • widespread exc NEast, C Atl (MAP)

      scrapple n • scattered, but chiefly Midl, esp PA, MD, C Atl (MAP)

      sea foam n 1 • esp PA, Mid and C Atl, N Cent (MAP)

      sheep burr n • scattered, but chiefly C and Mid Atl (MAP)

      shell road n • chiefly C and S Atl, LA, seTX (MAP)

      shoestring n 3 • chiefly NYC, C Atl (MAP)

      shouting Methodist n • scattered, but esp C Atl, PA, OH, WV (MAP)

      sickness n • scattered, but esp C and Mid Atl (MAP)

Charleston See South Carolina, Charleston

Cherokee

      catoosa bass n • [Prob for Catoosa Co., Georgia, from the Cherokee language..]

      conohany n • [Cherokee kanahena..]

      conutchie n • [Cf Cherokee kanataluhi..]

      cullowhee n • [Cherokee gûlâhí a plant..]

      divide the blankets v phr • [In ref to a Cherokee wedding ceremony in which a couple carries two “united blankets” to their new cabin]

      sochan n • [Cherokee sochani]

      stacey salad n • [Folk-etym for Cherokee ustesgi + salad]

      talala bird n • [Cherokee talala woodpecker]

Chesapeake Bay

      back fin n • Chesapeake Bay area

      biter n 1 • Chesapeake Bay

      booby owl n • Chesapeake Bay

      brogan n 3 • Chesapeake Bay

      buck net n • Chesapeake Bay

      bugeye n2 • chiefly C Atl coast, esp Chesapeake Bay (MAP)

      crab scrape n • Chesapeake Bay

      doubler n 4 • Chesapeake Bay

      float n 6 • Chesapeake Bay

      imperial crab n • Chesapeake Bay area

      jimmy n 3 • Chesapeake Bay, VA and NC coasts

      lemon-belly n • Chesapeake Bay

      log canoe n • Chesapeake Bay

      maiden n • Chesapeake Bay

      maulhead n 1 • Chesapeake Bay

      mudlark v • Chesapeake Bay

      oyster toad n • Chesapeake Bay

      prog v 2 • chiefly Sth, S Midl, esp Chesapeake Bay

      progger n • esp Chesapeake Bay

      ram n 2 • Chesapeake Bay

      rock n1 3 • esp Chesapeake Bay

      scrape n 3 • Chesapeake Bay

      scrape v B2 • Chesapeake Bay

      scraper n1 2b • Chesapeake Bay

      sea nettle n • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      sea-ore n • esp Chesapeake Bay

      silk crab n • Chesapeake Bay MD

      skipjack n 3 • esp Chesapeake Bay

      slab n 4 • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      snowball n 4 • Chesapeake Bay

      sook n • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      sponge crab n • Chesapeake Bay

      stinging nettle n 2 • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      sugar toad n • Chesapeake Bay

      tippet n • Chesapeake Bay

      tongs n pl • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      water celery n 1 • esp Chesapeake Bay

      waterman n • Chesapeake Bay

      whale crab n • chiefly Chesapeake Bay

      whitebelly n 3 • Chesapeake Bay

      wop n2 • Chesapeake Bay

Chicago See Illinois, Chicago

children

      abasicky intj • Among children: naughty! Shame on you!

      aunt n B3 • In Mormon polygamous families: the term of address used by children

      ballow v • Among children: to lay claim to (something)

      hockey n2, v • esp freq among children

      it ain’t done it phr • esp freq among children

Chinese

      chink n3 • [Alter and abbr of Chinese ching-ching..]

      crack seed n • [Chinese calque]

      cumshaw n • [Chinese (Amoy) pidgin]

      ginseng n • [Chinese jen2-shen1]

      grub hyson n • [grub root + Chinese hyson a type of green tea]

      wonder-of-the-world root n • [..a book name—once alleged to be a translation of the Chinese name—for ginseng]

Chinook

      cha-muck-a-muck n • [Cf Chinook jargon muck-a-muck food]

      cheechako n • [Chinook jargon]

      chinook n B1 • compounded from..Chinook

      chuck n4 • [Chinook jargon..]

      chum salmon n • [?Chinook jargon tsum, tzum spots, writing]

      cuitan n • [Chinook Jargon]

      cultus adj • [Chinook Jargon]

      eulachon n • [Chinook Jargon ulâkân]

      geoduck n • [Chinook Jargon]

      high-muck-a-muck n 1 • [Chinook Jargon hiu plenty + muckamuck food]

      hiyu adj • [Chinook Jargon hiu plenty]

      hump puss n • [Chinook humm opoots stinking tail]

      icta n • [Chinook Jargon..]

      killapie adj, n • [Chinook Jargon]

      klootchman n • [Chinook Jargon “woman, female”]

      memaloose adj, n • [Chinook Jargon memaloost < Chinook memalust to die, dead]

      mowitch n • [Chinook Jargon]

      muck-a-muck n • [Chinook Jargon]

      potlatch n • [Chinook Jargon..]

      potlatch v • [Chinook Jargon..]

      salal n • [Chinook Jargon]

      saltchuck n • [salt + Chinook Jargon chuck n4]

      shallon n • [Of Chinook origin..]

      Siwash n • [Chinook Jargon < CanFr sauvage an American Indian]

      skeezicks n • [Cf 1863 Gibbs Chinook Jargon 23..]

      skookum adj • [Chinook Jargon]

      skookum chuck n • [Chinook Jargon < skookum adj + chuck n4]

      soopolallie n • [Chinook Jargon]

      tillicum n • [Chinook Jargon tilikum people < Chinook tilxam]

      tolo n • [Cf..Chinook Jargon tolo to earn, win]

      tyee n • [Chinook Jargon tyee a chief]

      wapato n • [Chinook Jargon wappatoo..]

Choctaw

      appaloosa n2 • [Prob from Choctaw apolusa ‘to be daubed,’ referring to the mottled appearance of the fish]

      bashaw n • [..perh related to Choctaw basha “marked, a mark” in reference to the mottled skin..]

      bayou n • [LaFr from Choctaw bayuk creek, river]

      bobbasheely n • [Alter of Choctaw itibapishili my brother]

      bogue n • [From Choctaw bog, bok creek, stream]

      catawba n • [Choctaw katapa separated..]

      chickee n1 • [Prob from Creek; perh akin to Choctaw chuka house]

      sacalait n • [LaFr, by folk-etym..from Choctaw sakli..]

      skully n1 • [Choctaw iskli a dime, a ninepence, a bit < escalin]

Chukchi

      kamleika n • [Perh Chukchi kemlilyun]

Cincinnati See Ohio, Cincinnati

clipped form

      jib-jab v • [Perh clipped form of jibber-jabber..]

      jim town n • [Perh clipped form of jimcrack shoddy, flimsy + town..]

      jit n2 • [Clipped form of jitney n 1]

coalescence; coalescing (See also blend)

      biddy n3 • [Prob coalescence of biddy n